"Anna Karenina" (1914): Reconstructing and Interpretiong a Lost Russian Film
The article considers the problem of lost silent films, which is especially relevant to the study of Russian cinema, since most early Russian films have not been preserved, and it is hardly possible to describe the film history of this period without them. It is necessary to reconstruct films that have been lost or have been only partially preserved using every available source: stills, production photographs, reviews, memoirs, etc. A case of such “paper” reconstruction is presented in the article using the example of Vladimir Gardin’s Anna Karenina (1914), one of the most important Russian films of the mid-1910s. The results of this reconstruction prove that Anna Karenina was an innovative screen adaptation made in the spirit of the Silver Age that contributed to the development of the so-called Russian Style in pre-Revolutionary cinema.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
Leo Tolstoy and Max Weber on value neutrality of university research The problem of value neutrality of science is considered on the basis of works by Leo Tolstoy and Max Weber. In the first part of the article, the statements on the value neutrality of scientific knowledge and university teaching by Weber and Tolstoy are made explicit and analyzed in a comparative perspective. In the second part, the central problem of Tolstoy and Weber, that is, a rational choice of the value paradigm, is studied systematically. Differences in their assumptions and conclusions are shown. In the third part, a historical commentary to the context of Tolstoys and Webers works is given. The works are treated as episodes in a wider modern history of the value neutralization of the scientific knowledge and university teaching. The specifics of this process are tightly connected with the fundamental principles of the modern research university (the Humboldtian model of university).
Article is dedicated to the problem of the formation of Lev Tolstoy's world views and evolution of his views on the violence and the war. There is shown Tolstoy's way from the patriotic directivity to the substantiation of idea nonviolence and the nonresistance to evil by force.
The response of Leo Tolstoy to the First Russian Revolution highlighted new aspects of his teaching, which had long occupied an important place in Russian debates about the most important. He himself began his own personal uprising against the government back in the 70s, and his sermon of non-violence managed to acquire polemical works, arrays of pros and cons, and even sects, but the revolution showed that everything is not so transparent in his understanding of violence and state and the role of personality in history. There was a mutual reflection of two mirrors - Tolstoy and the Revolution. And this revealed some element that fell in Tolstoy’s previous doctrine: the motive, the invisibility of which led to a simplified reading of Tolstoy’s already deliberately simple teachings, to a suspiciously easy revelation of obvious contradictions and inconsistencies in his writings.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.