Шкала достоверности доказательств эффективности и безопасности лечебных и профилактических вмешательств на основе дизайна и методологического качества исследований
The quality of the evidence on the efficacy and safety of therapeutic and preventive interventions is analyzed in health technology assessment procedure (including the development of reimbursement lists such as the List of Vital and Essential Drugs in Russian Federation) and during development of clinical guidelines. The traditional approach to assess the evidence quality is based on the well-known pyramid of research designs (from meta-analyses to case descriptions), and now it is obsolete. The modern approach is to take into account also the methodological quality of studies. The methodological quality depends on risks of biases and the risk of incorrect data analysis. The article proposes a scale based on combinations of designs and three levels of methodological quality (high, medium, poor) for each of them. The scale differentiates meta-analyses based on randomized controlled trials and comparative studies of other designs. In the scale, the new design of indirect comparisons is envisaged, its’ evidence is lower than for RCT that are used for indirect comparisons. The scale can be used for assessing the absolute and relative effectiveness and safety of medical and preventive medical technologies. At present, the scale is included in the guidelines for the complex assessment of pharmaceuticals.
The article focuses on the use of derivatives formed from the word νόμος (law) with the help of α- privativum in the Greek translation of the Bible (the Septuagint). Derivatives from the base ἀνομ- are used to translate various Hebrew words, most of which have no "legalistic" connotations in Hebrew. The article sets out a statistical analysis of the usage of these derivatives in the Septuagint and shows that in the Psalms (translated into Greek in the 2nd century BCE) the tendency towards their usage is growing in comparison with the Pentateuch – the first body of the biblical books that was translated into Greek, as early as the beginning of the 3rd century BCE. Perhaps this tendency reflects a certain development in the culture and identity of the Judeo-Hellenistic communities.
The article deals with а problem of nonlinear regression modeling in sociology: prevalence of variables measured on low type scales, inconsistency of quality parameters of the models, nonlinearity of modeled events, presence of latent interactions between studied variables and, finally, as a consequence, a problem of finding an effective system of predictors. The article contains suggestions to handle these problems.
The text-book consists of 5 chapters, which deals with key aspects of methodology and research techniques in economic research in general, at regional level and in main economic sectors - state and corporate, including financial one.
Intended for use by pastgraduate students, majoring in Economics (38.06.01), professors of economic universities and all those, who are interested in scientific problems of economics.
The paper discusses in detail the scale of translation of primary points scored by school graduates in the unified state exam in mathematics, used from 2013 to the present time. Based on the analysis of the dynamics of these scales, a conclusion is made about the annual increase in the "average" 100-point result, as well as the presence of a significant increase in the final grade compared with the linear scale. Additionally, the authors describe the effect of reducing the value of primary points as they approach the maximum.
The transition to the competency standards of higher professional education requires an intensification of the educational process. To improve the quality of higher education should take into account not only the traditional long identified factors, but also new, come to the attention in recent decades. This article investigated the influence of gender-specific teaching of higher mathematics in engineering universities on the basis of statistical material collected one of the top technical universities in Moscow. In terms of gender be considered such factors as motivation and professional development of students, discipline and responsibility of homework, ability to geometric and algorithmic thinking, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Analyzes of teaching mathematics from a gender perspective in order to achieve the intensification and success in training in preparation for undergraduate engineering areas.
This prototype development explains the challenges encountered during the ISO/IEEE 11073 standard implementation process. The complexity of the standard and the consequent heavy requirements, which have not encouraged software engineers to adopt the standard. The developing complexity evaluation drives us to propose two possible implementation strategies that cover almost all possible use cases and eases handling the standard by non-expert users. The first one is focused on medical devices (MD) and proposes a low-memory and low-processor usage technique. It is based on message patterns that allow simple functions to generate ISO/IEEE 11073 messages and to process them easily. MD act as X73 agent. Second one is focused on more powerful device X73 manager, which do not have the MDs' memory and processor usage constraints. The protocol between Agent and Manager is point-to-point and we can distribute the functionality between devices.
Developed both implementation X73 Agent and Manager will cut developing time for applications based on ISO/EEE 11073.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine