Гендерное (не)равенство в детском саду: материнские нарративы о скрытом учебном плане и девичей идентичности
The article explores the pre-school girlhood as a culture which effects on construction of gender identity. It is based on the example of studying the maternal reflection of preschool education of girls in kindergarten. The empirical base of the research contains 11 interviews with mothers of girls at preschool age and 4 dyadic interviews (with both mothers and daughters aged 4–7) gathered in spring 2016. One of the goals of the study is to detect the elements of 'hidden curriculum' – the latent system of norms, which implicitly broadcast gender standards. Analysis of the variety of practices and aspects of kindergarten (educational programs, after-dinner sleeping, game playing, communication etc.) shows that 'hidden curriculum' permeates the entire daily routine of preschool-aged children. Analysis of the collected interviews shows that mothers support the gender order of the child’s education and care in kindergarten, putting forward their arguments of consent and justification of the educational practices embodied in the kindergarten routine. Cooperating with kindergarten’s teachers, they produce a 'hidden curriculum' that imposes the traditional model of femininity; this creates socialization practices that set a narrow framework for the construction of girl gender identity, depriving girls of the opportunity to follow the individual educational trajectory and to develop their own unique personality. The gendered 'hidden curriculum' proves to be an effective mechanism for both formations of the preschool girlhood and the starting framework for further gender socialization at school. As a matter of fact, the kindergarten prepares girl not only to learn in school but to be a good 'schoolgirl', which assumes the assimilation the social-determined norms prescribed for appropriate girls behavior and attitudes.
In 2016, Voprosy obrazovaniya Library was enriched with another book, the Russian edition of Philip W. Jackson’s classic book on school education, which was first published in 1968 and has become a bestseller for Western teachers and researchers. We introduce the reader to the foreword to this book written by professor Isak Froumin, who was lucky to know the author personally and who is discussing the relevance Jackson’s lessons maintain even nowadays.
The article focuses on the right to respect of one’s gender identity, which is one of the inalienable attributes of personal autonomy and dignity in their contemporary understanding. Discovering the constitutional meaning of this right is an important task due to the rapid development of biomedical technologies and the subsequent rejection of a strict presumption of the objective nature of gender. The right to recognition of gender identity is based on two key principles that are gradually penetrating the legal systems of democratic countries: gender pluralism and the subjectivity of gender identification. The author employs a case study to demonstrate: 1) some of the best practices of utilizing these principles; and 2) major challenges in their implementation, as well as existing approaches to overcoming these challenges. The principle of gender pluralism presumes the legality of numerous genders in addition to male and female. Cases reviewed by the German Federal Constitutional Court and the Indian Supreme Court provide substantive arguments in favour of recognizing a “third” (“diverse”) gender and show how bodies of constitutional review may introduce progressive changes into legal systems and take on a leading role in forgoing stereotypes and widening the interpretation of personal autonomy and dignity. The principle of subjectivity of gender identification demands that the government officially recognizes one’s gender on the basis of a person’s deeply felt internal experience. The article considers several constitutional arguments used by national and international judicial authorities that contribute to the gradual adoption of the above-mentioned principle, rejecting sex reassignment surgery as a necessary prerequisite for official gender recognition. The author devotes a special paragraph to the issue of the interconnection between the right to recognition of one’s gender identity and the principle of gender equality. The article notices that in many jurisdictions there is a shift from the principle of formal equality to that of substantive equality resulting in the approval of certain measures of positive discrimination based on gender. This trend brings along the extension of the spectrum of state obligations regarding the procedures of official gender recognition, as well as securing the rights of people who have undergone gender reassignment.
Background. Whereas reciprocal relationships between autobiographical memory and self are broadly emphasized, there is no empirical research that examines how major life changing transitions affect the graphically expressed life story.
Objective. The paper focuses on the novel topic of autobiographical memory in transsexual individuals.
Design. Twenty-eight volunteers who had undergone gender-affirming surgery and 28 non-transgender participants were asked to produce a Life Line which required them to identify the most memorable events in their lives. The level of acquisition of affirmed gender-typed traits was measured by the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI).
Results. Compared to cisgender individuals, transsexual participants have self-focused Life Lines with a high proportion of vivid flashbulb-like memories and unhappy recollections of childhood. The emotional profile of autobiographical memory addressing childhood was more negative in transsexual participants who deviate from BSRI norms reflecting derogation of past gender category in favour of affirmed gender identity. Those with high acquisition of affirming gender-typed traits assigned more space on the timeline for childhood, revealing the process of self-continuity restoration that leads to an increase in the proportion of positive memories. Accordingly, transsexuals recollected fewer events relevant to their gender identity performing a psychological defence toward the topic of gender.
Conclusion. We interpreted the results by focusing on the utility of autobiographical memories as a cognitive resource for filling the gap between past and current selves and maintaining self-continuity across the lifespan.
This article analyzes the main female character in a work of Ildiko von Kürthy "Mondscheintarif". The author defines the behavior of the heroine, who ruins the stereotypes of "correct" gender identity - the female archetype as homemaker , faithful wife , virtuous mother, and highlights the features of the real , the average woman - imperfect , but therefore even more attractive. The article commented the important sign of the new type of identity of the modern woman - the openness of female consciousness, ie prevalence of the demonstrated characteristics over her intrinsic characteristics. Author gives arguments for the need of deconstruction of the existing and reconstruction of new, alternative ideas about gender
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.