Neural Mechanisms of Post-Decisional Spreading of Alternatives
Human choices are not only driven by inner preferences, but also have an impact on behavior. Economists and psychologists have extensively demonstrated that choosing between two attractive options leads to a downgrade of the rejected option and to an upgrade of the chosen one. Preference modulation after the mere act of making a choice has been repeatedly demonstrated over the last 50 years by an experimental paradigm called the ‘free-choice paradigm’. In the past decade the phenomenon of choice-induced preference change generated by cognitive dissonance has been explored by neuroscientists. An increasing amount of research has highlighted the central role of the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) in social conformity and cognitive dissonance. This area represents the dissonance between one’s currently inconsistent and ideally consistent states. However, other brain areas have been linked to cognitive dissonance and its resolution, but as yet the mechanisms underpinning cognitive dissonance and the functional connection among brain areas found involved in cognitive dissonance are still unknown. Here, we firstly review the neural mechanisms and brain areas involved in post-decisional preference change and cognitive dissonance. Secondly, we suggest an integration of the existing neurocognitive mechanism of cognitive dissonance. Finally, we suggest new research lines to further explore neural principles of cognitive dissonance and subsequent post-decisional preference change.
The Chapter on Russia deals with the particularities of decision-making methodology used by the Supreme Court of Russia, in comparison with that of the US Supreme Court. It offers an overview of the Russian Supreme Court jurisdiction, justiciability and standing and the main issues arising in these areas.
The article discusses the formation of the structure and activity of the USSR State Defence Committee, analyzes formal and informal methods of implementation of its decisions
Analytical justification of solutions using a decision support system (DSS) significantly increases the quality of decisions. The existing DSS generally employs 1 or 2 methods of decision-making. It does not always lead to the desired results, as each method is based on certain assumptions and is not universal. The maximum effect can be achieved only insofar a set of decision-making methods is included into the knowledge base of the DSS. The only system that meets these requirements is the Expert Decision Support System (EDSS) developed under supervision of the author. Currently the EDSS includes about 50 decision-making methods. The expansion of the EDSS knowledge base by including new methods will allow for choosing the most suitable method for solving each decision-making task. Enhancing the Decision Table model underlying the system knowledge base allows you to develop the EDSS without complete reworking of the system code. The system knowledge base contains decision rules built on the principle of “if... then...” (if certain conditions of decision making exist, then a definite method of decision-making should be employed). To expand the EDSS knowledge base, ELECTRE collection methods were selected. Their key feature consists in not using the convolution operation of evaluation of the alternatives specified in different scales on individual criteria. This was the reason for selecting the methods of this family. In the article, the algorithms of these methods are adapted for their inclusion in the EDSS. An algorithm for obtaining a criterion-alternative matrix is proposed. It serves as input information for the ELECTRE family methods in cases where there is no objective information for its formation. The results of the study can be used to develop the EDSS, allowing analytical justification of solutions using methods that have not previously been used in the system.
This article presents a study of the regulatory role of emotional intelligence in decision-making in real-life situations and of the functioning of intellectual and personal potential using Emotional Anticipation Method (EAM). Expert psychologists used quality analysis techniques to develop a typology of the content characteristics of choices on a sample of military instructors (N = 79). It is important to note that our selective sample included professionals involved in actual professional activity, who are well aware of the consequences of using or ignoring emotional information in their professional activity. Characteristics of emotional intelligence (EI) and tolerance to ambiguity in the system of predictors of personal choice were considered. The hypothesis of discrepancy between the data obtained using objective measurements and EI questionnaires was confirmed. The results show difference between dispositional and situational con- texts of inclusion of EI in the regulation of choices. For each task, we obtained proofs that subjects non-randomly selected one of the proposed alternatives and their choice was the closest to their personal solution. This allows us to consider alternatives designed as having high ecological validity. It was found that in the final answer, the use of illustrative tips led to an increase in the number of choices that minimise uncertainty in a given emotional context. Emotional intelligence serves as a prerequisite for effective use of illustrative tips. EAM procedure can be regarded as an indirect diagnostic tool for evaluation of certain aspects of emotional intelligence.
The textbook is designed for students of management department (ESP - English for specific purposes)The aim of the book is to develop the learners'reading skills on the basis of authentic texts from original sources (Fortune, The Economist). The book contains tasks aimed at fostering the development and enrichment of special vocabulary, comprehensive reading as well as perfecting communicative skills. The students are supposed to have B2 level of English for making progress in using the book.sful
We studied the features of cognitive functions of attention and decision making in 18 healthy subjects and 15 patients with schizophrenia with the use of pairs of two short visual stimuli (double step). In the group of patients with schizophrenia, we observed a higher number of errors and higher frequency of modified saccad ic pattern – two saccades to each stimulus instead of only one saccade to the second stimulus. In these pa tients, the latency period of the first saccade was shorter, while the latency period of a single saccade to the second stimulus was longer as compared with healthy subjects. The lateral differences in the saccade latency in schizophrenic and healthy subjects are opposite. The data provide an evidence of disorders in the cognitive control and prognostic processes of saccade pro gramming in schizophrenic patients.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.