Упругость Капиталистического Урбанизма: Трансформация Американских Городов за Счет Социальной Справедливости
This article joins the ongoing critique of urban policies of crisis management in the US, which, in many cases, resolve through diﬀerent practices of public housing commodiﬁca-commodiﬁca-tion – fragile industry that is on the verge of extinction under capitalism. For instance, a so-called access to aﬀordable housing for all through the subprime mortgage loans prior2008 economic crisis, in fact, led to the foreclosure of three million houses following evictions of their tenants. These and other speculations on the public housing market areconsidered in this article as a part of a crisis as such.
Paradigm Shifts. Patterns and dynamics of innovation processes in urban planning and design.
Through the case study of the paradigm shift from modernist housing estates to compact mixed-use urban neighbourhoods this study investigates how profound novelties enter the discipline of urban planning and design. It neither focuses on the reasons for change (why?) nor on its results (what?), instead it seeks to provide insights on how a novel approach is created, disseminated and established as new routine. It finds that the compact mixed-use city model has been collectively produced and shaped by actors in an intense search for a new consensus in a milieu of heightened uncertainty, and it was successfully spread and established by referring to pressing needs in rather arbitrary ways. The study contributes to basic research in the fields of planning theory and planning history. The object of this research is the transformation in the conceptualization and planning of new housing estates in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Austria from the 1960s until today. The field of housing estates was one of the origins of the paradigm shift under investigation. As the provision of large-scale housing continues to pose a challenge to contemporary policy makers, understanding how novelties enter this field is of high importance.
One of the most important results of the economic reforms in the housing sector initiated by the law “On Privatization of Housing in the RSFSR” in July 1991 is a fundamental change in the role played by the federal government in the functioning and development of the housing sector. Critically, the government stopped operating as the principal centralized source of housing construction finance. Simultaneously, an attempt was made to improve targeting of government investments in the housing sector, which, despite acute budget deficits, the state continued to provide for the social policy goals. The intensive restructuring of the housing finance system driven by the critical condition of the state budget was truly unprecedented. Before the economic reform started in 1991, the budget was responsible for almost 80 percent of the total volume of new housing. By mid-1999 the share of developers in state ownership was down to 11.3 percent, with only 8.6 percent of the housing built by developers in federal ownership.
This book addresses unexpected disasters and shocks in cities and urban systems by providing quantitative and qualitative tools for impact analysis and disaster management. Including environmental catastrophes, political turbulence and economic shocks, Resilience and Urban Disasters explores a large range of tumultuous events and key case studies to thoroughly cover these core areas. In particular, the socio-economic impacts on urban systems that are subject to disasters are explored.
Characteristics is given to the concepts “housing”, “residential premise”; legal category “residential premise” is considered from the point of view of embodiment of national (basic) standard housing, established by the State; system of viewpoint of European Court in Human Rights under the name “concept of housing” developing from authority to authority is being analyzed; the issue of diffusion of inter-subject concepts “housing” and “residential premise” in connection with the process of State integration into common legal and economic European space is being considered; the shortcomings of legal definition “residential premise” are being disclosed, as not reflecting its essence, purposefulness and variety of forms of its existence; in this respect the main conclusion on introduction of changes into art.15 and 16 of Housing Code has been made.
The article attempted to analyze the categories of "dwelling" and "accommodation" with the doctrinal and normative point of view. Analyzed the jurisprudence of the Perm region in matters of classification of premises in office and industrial buildings to the category of dwelling. Attempted to identify the criteria for allocation to the residential premises.
The authors of the article identify the legal issues arising because of the apartment-market development. The article describes the apartment-market, including performance indicators of the scope of proposal in the primary housing market in apartment buildings and apartments in Moscow-city; the volume distribution of apartments proposal on administrative districts of Moscow-city, the price relation for 1 square meter of total apartment space in apartment buildings and apartments depends on the administrative district of Moscow. The articles analyses the legal status of the apartments and the reasons for the apartment market development.
The first high-speed railway appeared in 1964 in Japan, which was the leader in this business up to its economic crisis in the 1990s. Certain European countries developed these railways in 1980-90s, and some other Asian states also joined this club. China commenced with the construction of its high-speed railways in the 2000s, transforming itself into the world’s new leader in the field. This article is dedicated to a geographical analysis of the network development of high-speed railways in the years 1964-2017. Graph theory methods (network analysis) are applied to compare processes of development.
Growth of car number (in million) in the world is continuing non-stop: 1950 – 67, 1982 – 441, 2006 – 927, 2014 – 1.236, 2035 – 2.000 (forecast), 2050 – 2.500 (forecast). 7 developed countries have 51% of world’s its number (in million): USA – 250 (2010), China – 172 (2015; 205 in 2017), Russia – 51 (2014), Germany – 47 (2013), Japan – 40 (2013), France – 38 (2013), UK – 30 (2013). Motorization is continuing even after overcoming a seeming limit at 500-650 cars per 1,000 inhabitants (average for the world is 250): Italy – 673, France – 598, Germany – 554. The big geographical distinctions exist inside each country: region Seine et Marne – 530 and Paris – 330 in France; Wyoming – 1,400, California – 774, New York state – 536 in the U.S.A. But the motorization level in some countries is higher, and overcomes 800 cars per 1,000 inhabitants: Monaco – 863, the U.S.A. – 809, Iceland – 767, Luxembourg – 747, New Zealand – 733, Qatar – 724. And some less populated mountainous states of the U.S.A. have this level much higher: 1,100-1,400 cars per 1,000 inhabitants (Wyoming – 1405). The motorization level in Russia is still too low: 138 (2000); 233 (2009); 303 (2015). But some Russian regions have the European level: Primorskiy kray – 572 (2014), Kamchatskiy kray – 438, Moscow – only 311 (400 in 2017).
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.
Excluded from the urban policy discourse during Soviet period, historical centers of Russian cities are of interest to private developers today. The current development of these territories leads to the loss of valuable morphological characteristics which have been formed evolutionarily: lot configuration and size, building height and density, etc.
The attitudes of public authorities towards the maintenance of historical territories today mainly comes down to the preservation of listed heritage buildings. The status of historical settlements is a new tool in Russian heritage preservation policies. It allows the regulation of infill development parameters in historical areas and thereby protects the historic environment as an entity. Heritage preservation restrictions, however, are considered an obstacle for urban development since the logic of conservation is opposed to that of development. Public authorities, private developers and local residents have little to no resources and incentives to develop territories in accordance with the imposed restrictions.
This article argues that despite the strengths of these tools, it is not enough when territory revitalization is the goal. Existing regulations should be expanded by a set of incentive measures to stimulate the revitalization of historical urban cores and turn heritage into a capitalized asset.
The first part of the article is devoted to the theoretical underpinnings for elaborating an approach to the revitalization process. The authors appeal to urban morphology theory in order to determine the potential of historical environments. The second part is devoted to a review of best practices in the revitalization of historical centers. Third part of the article gives an overview of the current development practices of various stakeholders in the existing institutional context. The case of the historical center of Samara is used to illustrate the common phenomena.
Institutional economics is used to review the system of incentives and approaches to assessing the effects and to evaluate the contribution of various factors to the investment attractiveness of the territory and the development process as a whole.