Упругость Капиталистического Урбанизма: Трансформация Американских Городов за Счет Социальной Справедливости
This article joins the ongoing critique of urban policies of crisis management in the US, which, in many cases, resolve through diﬀerent practices of public housing commodiﬁca-commodiﬁca-tion – fragile industry that is on the verge of extinction under capitalism. For instance, a so-called access to aﬀordable housing for all through the subprime mortgage loans prior2008 economic crisis, in fact, led to the foreclosure of three million houses following evictions of their tenants. These and other speculations on the public housing market areconsidered in this article as a part of a crisis as such.
Paradigm Shifts. Patterns and dynamics of innovation processes in urban planning and design.
Through the case study of the paradigm shift from modernist housing estates to compact mixed-use urban neighbourhoods this study investigates how profound novelties enter the discipline of urban planning and design. It neither focuses on the reasons for change (why?) nor on its results (what?), instead it seeks to provide insights on how a novel approach is created, disseminated and established as new routine. It finds that the compact mixed-use city model has been collectively produced and shaped by actors in an intense search for a new consensus in a milieu of heightened uncertainty, and it was successfully spread and established by referring to pressing needs in rather arbitrary ways. The study contributes to basic research in the fields of planning theory and planning history. The object of this research is the transformation in the conceptualization and planning of new housing estates in the Federal Republic of Germany and in Austria from the 1960s until today. The field of housing estates was one of the origins of the paradigm shift under investigation. As the provision of large-scale housing continues to pose a challenge to contemporary policy makers, understanding how novelties enter this field is of high importance.
One of the most important results of the economic reforms in the housing sector initiated by the law “On Privatization of Housing in the RSFSR” in July 1991 is a fundamental change in the role played by the federal government in the functioning and development of the housing sector. Critically, the government stopped operating as the principal centralized source of housing construction finance. Simultaneously, an attempt was made to improve targeting of government investments in the housing sector, which, despite acute budget deficits, the state continued to provide for the social policy goals. The intensive restructuring of the housing finance system driven by the critical condition of the state budget was truly unprecedented. Before the economic reform started in 1991, the budget was responsible for almost 80 percent of the total volume of new housing. By mid-1999 the share of developers in state ownership was down to 11.3 percent, with only 8.6 percent of the housing built by developers in federal ownership.
This book addresses unexpected disasters and shocks in cities and urban systems by providing quantitative and qualitative tools for impact analysis and disaster management. Including environmental catastrophes, political turbulence and economic shocks, Resilience and Urban Disasters explores a large range of tumultuous events and key case studies to thoroughly cover these core areas. In particular, the socio-economic impacts on urban systems that are subject to disasters are explored.
Characteristics is given to the concepts “housing”, “residential premise”; legal category “residential premise” is considered from the point of view of embodiment of national (basic) standard housing, established by the State; system of viewpoint of European Court in Human Rights under the name “concept of housing” developing from authority to authority is being analyzed; the issue of diffusion of inter-subject concepts “housing” and “residential premise” in connection with the process of State integration into common legal and economic European space is being considered; the shortcomings of legal definition “residential premise” are being disclosed, as not reflecting its essence, purposefulness and variety of forms of its existence; in this respect the main conclusion on introduction of changes into art.15 and 16 of Housing Code has been made.
The article attempted to analyze the categories of "dwelling" and "accommodation" with the doctrinal and normative point of view. Analyzed the jurisprudence of the Perm region in matters of classification of premises in office and industrial buildings to the category of dwelling. Attempted to identify the criteria for allocation to the residential premises.
The authors of the article identify the legal issues arising because of the apartment-market development. The article describes the apartment-market, including performance indicators of the scope of proposal in the primary housing market in apartment buildings and apartments in Moscow-city; the volume distribution of apartments proposal on administrative districts of Moscow-city, the price relation for 1 square meter of total apartment space in apartment buildings and apartments depends on the administrative district of Moscow. The articles analyses the legal status of the apartments and the reasons for the apartment market development.
The problem of population decline, economic activity decrease and deterioration of investment attractiveness became topical on the agenda of sustainable development of industrial or single-industry cities in most developed countries (USA, EU, Australia) during the last century. New urban trends are increasing of the economic efficiency of urban areas usage, encouraging restrain of the population, including youth and employable people, and attracting new ones through the creation of required jobs and the formation of comfortable living conditions. All of these demanded the development of mechanisms and tools for the social and economic development of cities. World experience has accumulated various approaches to the transformation of shrinking cities — economic and financial instruments supporting the development and provision of partnership of key stakeholders of cities, integrated urban development programs, tools for optimizing the spatial and territorial structure of cities, etc. The article analyzes the existing practices of application of administrative and organizational mechanisms for the spatial development of shrinking cities in the United States, Britain, Germany, Spain and Australia. Based on the analysis, key conclusions are drawn about the factors that divide the trajectories from decline to the restoration of cities. The practical significance of the conclusions lies in the possibility of using them in the development of strategies and programs for the development of Russian cities, which tend to shrink their economic and territorial space.
Comprehensive and comparable estimates of health spending in each country are a key input for health policy and planning, and are necessary to support the achievement of national and international health goals. Previous studies have tracked past and projected future health spending until 2040 and shown that, with economic development, countries tend to spend more on health per capita, with a decreasing share of spending from development assistance and out-of-pocket sources. We aimed to characterise the past, present, and predicted future of global health spending, with an emphasis on equity in spending across countries.
We estimated domestic health spending for 195 countries and territories from 1995 to 2016, split into three categories—government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending—and estimated development assistance for health (DAH) from 1990 to 2018. We estimated future scenarios of health spending using an ensemble of linear mixed-effects models with time series specifications to project domestic health spending from 2017 through 2050 and DAH from 2019 through 2050. Data were extracted from a broad set of sources tracking health spending and revenue, and were standardised and converted to inflation-adjusted 2018 US dollars. Incomplete or low-quality data were modelled and uncertainty was estimated, leading to a complete data series of total, government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending, and DAH. Estimates are reported in 2018 US dollars, 2018 purchasing-power parity-adjusted dollars, and as a percentage of gross domestic product. We used demographic decomposition methods to assess a set of factors associated with changes in government health spending between 1995 and 2016 and to examine evidence to support the theory of the health financing transition. We projected two alternative future scenarios based on higher government health spending to assess the potential ability of governments to generate more resources for health.
Between 1995 and 2016, health spending grew at a rate of 4·00% (95% uncertainty interval 3·89–4·12) annually, although it grew slower in per capita terms (2·72% [2·61–2·84]) and increased by less than $1 per capita over this period in 22 of 195 countries. The highest annual growth rates in per capita health spending were observed in upper-middle-income countries (5·55% [5·18–5·95]), mainly due to growth in government health spending, and in lower-middle-income countries (3·71% [3·10–4·34]), mainly from DAH. Health spending globally reached $8·0 trillion (7·8–8·1) in 2016 (comprising 8·6% [8·4–8·7] of the global economy and $10·3 trillion [10·1–10·6] in purchasing-power parity-adjusted dollars), with a per capita spending of US$5252 (5184–5319) in high-income countries, $491 (461–524) in upper-middle-income countries, $81 (74–89) in lower-middle-income countries, and $40 (38–43) in low-income countries. In 2016, 0·4% (0·3–0·4) of health spending globally was in low-income countries, despite these countries comprising 10·0% of the global population. In 2018, the largest proportion of DAH targeted HIV/AIDS ($9·5 billion, 24·3% of total DAH), although spending on other infectious diseases (excluding tuberculosis and malaria) grew fastest from 2010 to 2018 (6·27% per year). The leading sources of DAH were the USA and private philanthropy (excluding corporate donations and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation). For the first time, we included estimates of China's contribution to DAH ($644·7 million in 2018). Globally, health spending is projected to increase to $15·0 trillion (14·0–16·0) by 2050 (reaching 9·4% [7·6–11·3] of the global economy and $21·3 trillion [19·8–23·1] in purchasing-power parity-adjusted dollars), but at a lower growth rate of 1·84% (1·68–2·02) annually, and with continuing disparities in spending between countries. In 2050, we estimate that 0·6% (0·6–0·7) of health spending will occur in currently low-income countries, despite these countries comprising an estimated 15·7% of the global population by 2050. The ratio between per capita health spending in high-income and low-income countries was 130·2 (122·9–136·9) in 2016 and is projected to remain at similar levels in 2050 (125·9 [113·7–138·1]). The decomposition analysis identified governments’ increased prioritisation of the health sector and economic development as the strongest factors associated with increases in government health spending globally. Future government health spending scenarios suggest that, with greater prioritisation of the health sector and increased government spending, health spending per capita could more than double, with greater impacts in countries that currently have the lowest levels of government health spending.
Financing for global health has increased steadily over the past two decades and is projected to continue increasing in the future, although at a slower pace of growth and with persistent disparities in per-capita health spending between countries. Out-of-pocket spending is projected to remain substantial outside of high-income countries. Many low-income countries are expected to remain dependent on development assistance, although with greater government spending, larger investments in health are feasible. In the absence of sustained new investments in health, increasing efficiency in health spending is essential to meet global health targets
The current debate on Internet-Constitution is the reflection of both the development of competition between main stakeholders and the growing social demand for the legal regulation in the area of web communications. In order for the Internet-law to function effectively it has to be legitimate i.e. it must be fair in the eyes of the public. This requires that: firstly, the aims behind the Internet-law conform with the sense of public morality; secondly, it be implemented in an impartial manner; and, thirdly, that it be applied efficiently by the system of independent mediating institutes. Thus the crucial questions about sustainability of Internet-constitution should be formulated in the following way: how new “social contract” could be adopted in order to create a stable framework for the direct (on-line) or indirect (off-line) information exchange, the accumulation of reliable information, to ensure human rights protection and the transparent international legal control over the whole process of information production, exchange and distribution, and the implementation of comparable legal and technical criteria for its evaluation made by independent and professional experts. According author’s view this constitution-based approach to Internet- rules creation provides the possibility to rethink the bulk of the fundamental legal grounds of the whole Internet project as well as the criteria for the virtual state concept and e-government strategy evaluation – legal framework, hard and soft law methods of normative and administrative regulation, technical innovations implementation and the calculation of social consequences of their use.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.