Стало быть, по русски так говорят: вводная конструкция стало быть в русском языке
The article describes the linguistic behavior of the introductory phrase stalo byt’ (literally became to be, meaning roughly ‘so’) in the Russian language of the XVIII - XXI centuries. The data from the Russian National Corpus show that this construction acquired additional senses over the centuries. Firstly it was used as a reason and cause marker, then it also developed two discourse meanings: paraphrase and returning to a previous theme. Our data show that this development is correlated with the increasing use of stalo byt’ in dialogues. In the Russian language of the XVIII – XIX centuries there was a variant of stalo byt’ – a single introductory word stalo (literally became), the difference between the constructions being rather stylistic than grammatical. Stalo while being the most preferable and prestigious in the language of the XVIII century, by the beginning of the XIX century became to sound archaic and thus vernacular. Finally, by the end of the XIX century parenthetical stalo almost disappeared. We suppose that this kind of semantic development from circumstance role marker to discourse unit must be typical for a class of lexical items and we plan to do some further research on it.
The collected papers contain articles by famous and young scientists on actual problems of philology (cognitive linguistics, lexical semantics, semiotics, pragmatics, text linguistics, stylistics; poetics, literary criticism; translation, intercultural communication). The issue also presents research on foreign language teaching methods. The edition is addressed to linguists, translators, teachers, postgraduates, students and a wide readership.
Reading utilises at least two neural pathways. The temporal lexical route visually maps whole words to their lexical entries, whilst the nonlexical route decodes words phonologically via parietal cortex. Readers typically employ the lexical route for familiar words, but poor comprehension plus precocity at mechanically 'sounding out' words suggests that differences might exist in autism. Combined MEG/EEG recordings of adults with autistic spectrum conditions (ASC) and controls while reading revealed preferential recruitment of temporal areas in controls and additional parietal recruitment in ASC. Furthermore, a lack of differences between semantic word categories was consistent with previous suggestion that people with ASC may lack a 'default' lexical-semantic processing mode. These results are discussed with reference to dual-route models of reading.
The paper examines in detail semantics and usage of the Russian substantive "ja" 'Self'. Special attention is paid to the German roots of this usage in the sources of the 18th and 19th centuries.
The paper continues research into words denoting everyday life objects in the Russian language. This research is conducted for developing a new encyclopedic thesaurus of Russian everyday life terminology. Working on this project brings up linguistic material which leads to discovering new trends and phenomena not covered by the existing dictionaries. We discuss derivation models which gain polularity: clipped forms (komp < komp’juter ‘computer’, nout < noutbuk ‘notebook computer’, vel < velosiped ‘bicycle’, mot<motocikl ‘motorbike’), competing masculine and feminine con- tracted nouns derived from adjectival noun phrases (mobil’nik (m.) / mo- bilka (f.) < mobil’nyj telefon (m.) ‘mobile phone’, zarjadnik (m.) / zarjadka (f.) < zarjadnoe ustrojstvo (n.) ‘AC charger’), hybrid compounds (plat’e- sviter ‘sweater dress’, jubka-brjuki ‘skirt pants’, shapkosharf ‘scarf hat’, vilkolozhka ‘spork, foon’). These words vary in spelling and syntactic behav- iour. We describe a newly formed series of words denoted multifunctional objects: mfushkaZ< MFU < mnogofunkcional’noe ustrojstvo ‘MFD, multi- function device’, mul’titul ‘multitool’, centr ‘unit, set’. Explaining the need to compose frequency lists of word meanings rather than just words, we of- fer a technique for gathering such lists and provide a sample produced from our own data. We also analyze existing dictionaries and perform various experiments to study the changes in word meanings and their comparative importance for speakers. We believe that, apart from the practical usage for our lexicographic project, our results might prove interesting for research in the evolution of the Russian lexical system.
The paper deals with comparative analysis of two groups of polysemantic words in Russian and in English proving the idea of relativity of the structural scheme of the polysemantic word. The specificity of the lingual unit is always relative and depends on the background against which the comparison is performed.
These proceedings include papers on subjects from a wide number of areas including theoretical linguistics, translation, computational linguistics, natural language processing, and applied linguistics, focusing on a variety of languages, ranging from familiar Indo-European languages to Mandarin Chinese, Wolof, and Dene Sųɬiné. In order to make the papers available to the wider research community, these proceedings are being published electronically and distributed freely at http://www.meaningtext.net
The Meaning-Text Theory is a holistic linguistic theory characterized in particular by the central position of the lexicon, the primacy of semantics, the importance of the communicative structure (= information structure), and the reliance on dependencies on all levels. MTT has been extensively developed over the last four decades with respect to its coverage of linguistic phenomena and application in a variety of research fields - in particular natural language processing. The main unifying ideas for MTT are interaction and semantic motivation: interaction of different linguistic units, interaction of different levels of language, and semantic motivation of syntax, semantic motivation of collocations.
The article is implemented within the cognitive approach and is dedicated to the formation of a substantive core of the polysemantic verb, particularly of the verb of relations in the modern English. The first part of the article presents points of view on the semantic nature - "content plan" - of the word. In the second part of the paper the authors identify the main cognitive mechanisms underlying the formation of meanings of the verb compose, as well as its substantial core that combines all the lexical-semantic variants of a this verb.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.