Measurement of Social Status in Experimental Games
The majority of social and economic interactions take place between people of different social status. Age, position, income and other factors affect the way people evaluate their position in the society. We investigate how self-estimation of the social status is formed when an individual participates in an economic experimental game. In our experiment subjects are set in pairs and play consequently the dictator game, the trust game and the labor market (contract) game. After each game we measure their subjective socioeconomic status using two different scales. We show that participation in the dictator game affects the perception of one’s social status to the greatest extent: the status of dictators is higher than the status of recipients. Prescription of roles in other games does not have such an effect. Active behavior, gender, income, etc. also affect the subjective status.
In this paper, we study the Maximum Happy Vertices and the Maximum Happy Edges problems (MHV and MHE for short). Very recently, the problems attracted a lot of attention and were studied in Agrawal ’17, Aravind et al. ’16, Choudhari and Reddy ’18, Misra and Reddy ’17. Main focus of our work is lower bounds on the computational complexity of these problems. Established lower bounds can be divided into the following groups: NP-hardness of the above guarantee parameterization, kernelization lower bounds (answering questions of Misra and Reddy ’17), exponential lower bounds under the Set Cover Conjecture and the Exponential Time Hypothesis, and inapproximability results. Moreover, we present an O∗(ℓk)O∗(ℓk) randomized algorithm for MHV and an O∗(2k)O∗(2k) algorithm for MHE, where ℓℓ is the number of colors used and k is the number of required happy vertices or edges. These algorithms cannot be improved to subexponential taking proved lower bounds into account.
In this article, a comparative analysis of the subjective social status of formal and informal labor market participants will be used in order to investigate possible differences in their socioeconomic status. Subjective social status approach was introduced in social stratification research and since then numerous empirical studies revealed significant connection between individual’s perceptions about own place in a society and his or her behavior in various spheres (from labor market behavior to consumption, physical, and mental health), relationship with other people.
In theory, a poverty line can be defined as the cost of a common (inter-personally comparable) utility level across a population. But how can one know if this holds in practice? For groups sharing common consumption needs but facing different prices, the theory of revealed preference can be used to derive testable implications of utility consistency knowing only the "poverty bundles" and their prices. Heterogeneity in needs calls for extra information. We argue that subjective welfare data offer a credible means of testing utility consistency across different needs groups. A case study of Russia's official poverty lines shows how revealed preference tests can be used in conjunction with qualitative information on needs heterogeneity. The results lead us to question the utility consistency of Russia's official poverty lines.
The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive analysis of the American social policy for the Vietnam War veterans. This paper includes three parts: description of protest movements and the struggle for the recognition of the Vietnam War veterans status; studying the problems and consequences of war syndrome; expertise of American legislation within the context of the Vietnam veterans social protection. The recognition of the PTSD as the illness allowed using rehabilitation programs for more effective integrating former combatants into a peaceful social environment. Measures of the combatants social support in the United States based on the implementation programs of preferential maintenance of educational needs, group life insurance, medical rehabilitation, not only owing of injuries, but also in connection with the effects of herbicides. In the USA active work is conducted on carrying out of such programs as assistance in finding co-soldiers, housing for homeless veterans of the Vietnam War, rehabilitation after returning from correctional institutions, the use of round-the-clock telephone hotline.
In this article, we discuss the main theoretical approaches to the interpretation of migration biographies and distinguish the main motives and factors of spatial movements. We also analyze the relationship between migration movements and social mobility. In addition, considerable attention is given to key methodological approaches to the analysis of migration and migration biographies. In particular, we examine the biographical method to reconstruct the trajectory of the migration of the individual throughout his or her life. Also highlighted, in particular, is the use of advanced methods of statistical analysis – event history analysis and sequence analysis – which take a considerable amount of time and require ample creativity in preparing data.
An overview of literary sources is used to determine factors that account for differences in the role pay raises play for teachers in different regions. These factors include: regional economic structure; stage of economic development (growth or decline); share of public sector industries in regional economics; specific territorial characteristics resulting in discrepancy between average monthly wages and the real standards of living in regions. The paper has revealed a change to teachers’ pay at different educational levels in regions of Russia between 2011 and the first half of 2013. The level of teachers’ pay shows a trend towards reducing inequalities and polarization in distribution of regions by personal income. At the same time, purchasing power of teachers’ wage is growing more and more heterogeneous across the federal subjects of the Russian Federation. As compared to 2011–2012, when purchasing power of teachers’ wage was at the same level in more than 50% of regions, the first months of 2013 witnessed an increase in the number of levels, as well as in that of regions at different levels. Teachers’ wage varies significantly by its purchasing power across federal subjects that have achieved or almost achieved their teachers’ pay goals. The author proves the need for specific research to discover the role (including psychological one) teachers’ pay raise plays broken down by the subjects of the Russian Federation.