Превербы nŏχ и jŏχi в западных диалектах хантыйского языка: аспектуальный и дискурсивный анализ
This volume is a contribution to the typology of the category of aspect. Its aim is bringing forward new empirical data from languages not yet (widely) covered in typological aspectual investigations and to start or broaden their typological discussion. The articles in the paper are grouped in two sections. The first section is an account of aspectual systems of languages in four linguistic areas, including Europe, the Caucasus, Northeast Eurasia, and Africa and the Americas. The second section focusses on specific aspectual categories in individual languages or cross-linguistically.
The article analyzes the principles of naming of certain types of familial relations using the concept ‘husband’ (a married man) as example, as well as means of application of semantic characteristics relevant to their naming to linguistic maps. Differences in terms are caused by types of familial relation systems - descriptive or classificatory. We discovered the following basic strategies for the naming of the concept ‘husband’: 1) transfer of meaning: physical realm (gender) → social realm (acquired kinship): ‘man → husband’; 2) transfer of meaning: physical realm (gender and age) → social realm (acquired kinship): ‘old man → husband’; 3) transfer of meaning: social realm (friendly communication) → social realm (acquired kinship): ‘friend → husband’. In the Khanty language, the basic strategy of transfer is the ‘man → husband’ model; however, the ‘friend → husband’ transfer is also possible. In Nenets, the basic strategy is ‘old man → husband’, while the ‘man → husband’ and (less frequently) ‘friend → husband’ strategies are peripheral. In Selkup, all listed strategies can be observed, however, the last one is peripheral: ‘man → husband’, ‘old man → husband’, ‘friend → husband’ (the latter is only observed in Purovskaya Tolka and Bystrinka). In Komi-Zyrian, several strategies are used varying between areals: ‘man → husband’ (everywhere), ‘old man → husband’ (Kharsaim, Samburg), ‘friend → husband’ (Muzhi, Vosyakhovo, Beloyarsk, Kharsaim, Samburg). The basic strategy of the Samoyed languages is the usage of lexemes denoting middle-aged or elderly male persons with regards to their age to denote acquired kinship. A typical Nenets meaning transfer is ‘old man → husband’, in Selkup it is ‘man → husband’ and ‘old man → husband’, although other types of figurative meaning development according to the model ‘friend → husband’ are also possible. The Komi-Zyrian language is unique, which is explained by its relatively recent emergence at this territory and movement through territories populated by other peoples. Innovations in various regions of its distribution are caused by contacts with various languages with varying principles of kinship terminology organization. In places where it comes in contact with Khanty, figurative meanings develop according to the classificatory type of kinship terminology (usage of the word мужык as ‘husband’ becomes possible), whereas in the zone of interaction with the Nenets language, the Samoyed ‘old man’ model is activated. In other contact zones, mostly peripheral ones (Khanty and Nenets, Khanty and Selkup), similar processes take place.
The present paper deals with two cases of predicate reduplication in the Besleney dialect of the Kabardian language (idiom spoken in Ulap village, Adyghe Republic). The reduplicated constructions mark the duration or the regularity of a situation and seem to form an antonymic pair. In addition, one of the constructions shows futher semantic development and can also mark the highest degree of the main feature of an object.
Some properties of Russian modal constructions with reflexive verbs marked by -sja are discussed in the paper – in particular, modal passives (U menja diplom ne pišetsja – lit. ‘With me, graduataion paper is not being written’, i.e. ‘I do not make any progress with my graduation paperʼ) and modal impersonal passives. Firstly, the marking of the base subject is claimed to be only indirectly related to the transitivity of the base verb: Summaries and Keywords 782 in modern Russian, all theoretically possible combinations (u-phrase + transitive base verb, dative subject + intransitive base verb, as well as more rare u-phrase + intransitive base verb and dative subject + transitive base verb) can be observed. Secondly, in some contexts, such as questions like Chego tebe ne P ‘Why do not you P’ some restrictions on the use of impersonal modal constructions become less stringent.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.