Дуальное обучение в российских регионах: модели, лучшие практики, возможности распространения
The paper analyzes the results of the systems project Training Workers to Comply with the Requirements of High-Tech Industries Using Dual Education, organized by the Agency for Strategic Initiatives in 13 subjects of the Russian Federation. Dual education implies “dual” institutional consolidation of knowledge obtained in vocational education programs: theory is normally learned at a vocational school, while an apprenticeship is taken within a company, in a real-life working environment. It is shown that the best practices of dual education can be found in the growing sectors. The most successful implementation of the dual model is observed in the regions of Russia that have seen their investment climates improved, their barriers for businesses reduced, and the quality of their public administration increased. Effectiveness of the dual model is largely contingent on the economic motivations of employers investing in a staff training system within the framework of large-scale investment and technology upgrade projects. As employers’ associations are weak, the decisive role in the coordination of efforts between businesses and professional educational institutions is played by regional authorities and governor’s councils, which have virtually grown into substitutes for German chambers of industry and commerce. Nationwide vocational education projects have promoted further development of the dual model due to organizational and financial support from study and career clusters. The best dual education practices should only be spread to regional industries that have the necessary economic and infrastructure premises for companies to invest in such a staff training system.
The article is devoted to a new type of educational programs that are formed at the intersection of higher and secondary education. Education as an institute is seen as an instrument of social stratification of society. The authors analyze the major developments of education as an institute, for instance differentiation between of academic and vocational educational programs and the creation of programs of production a “Homo habilis” — a skilled performer. Changes in the vocational education system are considered in the light of the introduction of the new educational standards FSES 2011 (Federal State Educational Standards).
In this article there is an analysis of positions of various authors which exist in science literature about an issue on the rights arising with regard to the object of a public-private partnership agreement, as well as a characteristic of norms of Russian law which cover the matter in question and analysis of some problematic issues arising in process of construction and application of the governing norms in practice.
There is being carried out in the country a reform of the sector of public and municipal institutions which involves the transition to three main types of institutions: state-owned (public), independent (autonomous) and budget-funded. This reform is realized in accordance with the Federal law N o 83-FZ “On amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation in view of improvement of the legal status of public (municipal) institutions”. The article considers the main provisions of the reform and the peculiarities of its implementation in the professional education institutions.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.