Город святых апостолов: образ Рима в письмах Григория Великого
The article analyzes the image of the city of Rome, as it appears in the letters of Pope Gregory the Great (590–604). Gregory did a great deal to make Rome prosper and transformed it into one of the main spiritual centers of the Christian West. This was achieved thanks to the Pope’s relentless care about beautifying the city, about repairing the churches and founding monasteries, all of were testimony to the triumph of the Christian faith. Another, very important factor was the veneration of the relics of the saints, chiefly the apostles Peter and Paul. Gregory established a genuine cult of their worship, thereby turning Rome into a center of pilgrimage.
The article deals with the political, theological and cultural dialogue between papal Rome and Imperial Constantinople. The period of 6-8th centuries is the one of Byzantine domination in Rome, and a number of Roman frescoes belong to this period, whose style and iconography give insights into the theological and political polemics, or into the cultural influence of early Byzantine art on the local tradition. Art works are rarely used or not used at all as sources in the study of relations between the two capitals and iconoclasm. This study can helpfully contribute to the overall research view on the subject
This publication, edited for the first time in Russia, is dedicated to the famous Roman gallery of Borghese, with a collection of ancient art and sculpture of the New Time, Renaissance masterpieces and works of artists of the 17th and 18th centuries, collected by one of the most celebrated and powerful Italian families and kept in a beautiful palace built especially for works of art. In this space are collected the magnificent sculptures of Bernini, works of Raphael and Titian, paintings of Giovanni Bellini and Paolo Veronese, Perugino and Correggio, Cranach and Rubens and other famous masters.
This article deals with some aspects of the influence of the Roman public law on the Russia law. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the concepts of "state" and "tsarstvo" in the Roman public law and Russian law, of the legal aspects of the relationship between church and state in Ancient Rome, and Russia - the "Third" Rome, of the concept of the republic, as well as the relationship of public power and people in Roman and Soviet law.
The goal of the article is to distinguish the trustworthy data on the decoration of the apse of the Church of Santa Maria Antiqua from the stereotypes of the scolarship.
This articles is dedicated to the analysis of three letters from the Register epistolarum of the Pope Gregory I of Great (590–604), which describe the case of the bishops Januarius and Stefan (XIII. 46, 47, 49). Letter XIII.46 is an instruction to the papal defensor John, sent in 603 by the pope to Byzantine Spain to investigate how and under what circumstances were convicted the bishops Januarius and Stefan several years ago. According to these letters we can learn that the bishops were removed from office and sent into exile by the Byzantine governor named Komitiol. The reason for their disgrace probably lies in their close connection with the bishops of the Kingdom of Toledo, the enemy of Byzantine Empire. The letter XIII.47 is the John’s retourn: we learn that the bishops were not only subjected to a completely unjust sentence, but the whole procedure of the trial was conducted with numerous violations. Finally, by letter XIII.49, which are the subtitle Exemplum legis, Gregory dismissed the accusation from Januarius and Stefan, and imposed a penance on their offenders and excommunicated them. The verdict also affected the successor of Komitiol (who had perished by that time): he had to return to Januarius the confiscated property. To confirm the legitimacy of his decisions, Gregory quoted in the letter fragments of 123-th Novellae by Justinian, as well as some of the constitutions of the Code. This is the only case of direct appeal of the pope to the legislation of Justinian, and generally to the norms of secular law. Partly the literal quoting of fragments of the Code can be explained by lacunae in the canon law of the VI century, which Gregory tried to close with the imperial legislation. However, this explanation is not exhausted. Gregory cited the laws though carefully (preserving the inscription and the subscript, noting the abbreviations, etc.), but still selectively: he leaved behind the scenes those fragments that could not justify his interference and his decision. We do not know exactly, if Corpus iuris civilis was known, how it was applied, so it is probable that the pope's addressees did not have the very books of the Codex and Novellae in their hands, and Gregory had no choice but to quote them. With the support of the norms of the imperial legislation Gregory the Great could defend his point of view in a correspondence dispute with the governor of Byzantine Spain, having taken a decision that was contrary to his interests.
The paper examines the main features of Roman-Irish relationship through the prism of military conflicts. Latin sources of the second half of the 4th century mention two groups of Irish raiders: skotti and attacotti. Both groups are difficult to identify, however it is proposed, based on the account of Ammianus Marcellinus, to distinguish them by the logic of forming (respectively, social and clan-based) and goals of military actvity (plundering and serch for new territory to settle). This assumtion is confirmed by later accounts of the sources.