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Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 77
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Article
Nikolaev D. S., Shumilin M. Shagi/Steps. 2021. Vol. 7. No. 1. P. 183-198.

The last two decades saw a dramatic increase in the number of papers published on the subject of stylometry, which is often narrowly understood as the task of identification of the author of a particular text fragment based on its stylistic properties. We present a new lightweight algorithm for stylometric identification of authors of Latin prose texts based on Burrows’s Delta, computed over relative frequencies of 244 manually selected genre and topic neutral words, and the Dirichlet distribution, whose parameters we estimate using an iterative maximum-likelihood algorithm. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, we present a case study of 3000-word fragments of texts by 36 classical and medieval authors and show that our method performs on par with Random Forest, a powerful general-purpose classification algorithm. We provide summary statistics of our algorithm’s performance together with confusion matrices demonstrating pairwise discriminability of texts by different authors. The advantages of our method are that it is very simple to implement, very quick to train and do inference with, and that it is very interpretable since it is a model-based algorithm: precision of the fitted Dirichlet distributions directly corresponds to the stylistic homogeneity of the texts by different authors. This makes it possible to use the algorithm as a general research tool in Latin stylistics.

Added: Mar 31, 2021
Article
Долгорукова Н. М., Бабенко К. В. Шаги/Steps. 2021. Т. 7. № 1. С. 199-210.

Carmina Burana is a Latin-German manuscript written in the beginning of the 13th century. Our article is devoted to an analysis of the song ‘In taberna quando sumus’ from this collection. The poem describes the daily life of a medieval tavern and contains several typical elements of parodia sacra, ‘sacred parody’. In particular, it is characterized by multiple periphrases and direct quotations from the Bible and various important Catholic texts (for instance, the Roman Missal), placed in the context of a tavern feast. Parodia sacra is often constructed out of formulas and marked by reinterpretations of Christian symbols and rituals. These characteristics can be found in the song ‘In taberna quando sumus’. The tavern is a Church of drunkards, where money and not the Lord rules everything. Here, instead of hard work, people debauch, cast lots, similar to Roman soldiers, drink enormously (liturgical wine is replaced by profane, Bacchus takes the place of Christ). In the tavern, they drink to people instead of praying for them, and make thirteen toasts, and those who dare to scold these drunkards would face the same punishment as the enemies of King David. All of these elements, connected to the traditional motif of ‘memento mori’, allow us to consider the poem as a typical High Medieval Latin parody, which, in the words of M. M. Bakhtin, arose as a reaction to the ‘official’ hierarchical culture of the Middle Ages.

Added: Nov 23, 2020
Article
Ауров О. В., Копылов И. А., Марей Е. С. Шаги/Steps. 2016. Т. 2. № 2-3. С. 317-348.

The article examines the interpretation of Pompey the Great's (106–48 BC) image, in the medieval chronicle “Estoria de Espanna”, which was compiled in the vernacular (Castilian) language after 1270 at the court of Alfonso X the Wise, king of Castile and Leon (1252–1284). The authors emphasize the fact that, in contradiction to the modern tradition, when describing the conflict between Pompey and Caesar, the medieval chronicler sympathizes with the former. The authors explore the causes of this non-traditional interpretation and show the means used to construct the image (primary sources of the chronicle, the manner in which they are analysed, the style and specific language of the chronicler). The article includes a translation of some chapters from the chronicle (77–80 and 101–105) that present episodes from Pompey’s biography.

Added: Nov 14, 2016
Article
Рогинская О. О. Шаги/Steps. 2017. Т. 3. № 1. С. 158-184.
The article discusses how “ménage à trois” as a literary motif functions in Ivan Goncharov’s novel Oblomov. This motif is an important aspect of the many-sided reception of Rousseau’s Julie, or the New Heloise in the Russian novel. As intermediate links of this receptive couple (Rousseau — Goncharov) we consider different circumstances of how the first and the second halves of Rousseau’s novel were perceived in European and Russian literary and cultural contexts. We also discuss those literary and historical instances in XVIIIth — XIXth Russian culture that were based on the idea of that it was (im)possible to find love and create a family utopia in the form of a ménage à trois.
Added: Jul 15, 2017
Article
Селезнёв М. Г. Шаги/Steps. 2017. Т. 3. № 4. С. 47-63.

The paper deals with the choice between the Greek words βασιλεύς and ἄρχων used in the LXX translation of the Pentateuch to render the Hebrew melek. Having adduced the relevant passages with necessary textual comments, the author discusses the hypothesis of E. Bickerman that the choice is to be explained by self-censorship of the LXX translators, worried about the reception of the Greek Pentateuch by the Ptolemaic court and administration. The author concurs with critics of the hypothesis and suggests that the solution should be sought elsewhere, namely in the attitude of Second Temple Judaism towards the institution of monarchy in Israel. The last part of the paper deals with the similar strategy employed by the translators in the Greek Ezekiel.

Added: Nov 15, 2017
Article
Шумилин М. В. Шаги/Steps. 2016. Т. 2. № 2-3. С. 132-150.
Added: Sep 20, 2018
Article
Галински К. Шаги/Steps. 2017. Т. 3. № 4. С. 151-167.
Added: Sep 22, 2018
Article
Кочековская Н. А. Шаги/Steps. 2018. Т. 4. № 3-4. С. 36-58.

The article considers 20th century philosophers’ and literary critics’ focus on the problem of allegory and the connection of this topic with the problem of temporality. The article concentrates on the conceptions of Walter Benjamin and Gilles Deleuze; texts by E. Bloch, R. Barthes, P. De Man, F. Ankersmit, G. Didi-Huberman, M.A. Holly, and others are analyzed in order to determine both their theoretical context and subsequent development. We also examine the interconnection between the concepts of allegory as temporality and empirical materials from the Renaissance, baroque and romanticism, which were frequently used for the conceptualizations. The main conclusion of the article is that anachronism as the main mechanism and practice in allegory, interpreted as a literary experience which overcomes temporal linearity, turns out to be the most important common point for different conceptualizations of allegory as a mode of temporality.

Added: Jun 5, 2019
Article
Кочековская Н. А. Шаги/Steps. 2018. Т. 4. № 3-4. С. 36-58.

The article considers 20th century philosophers’ and literary critics’ focus on the problem of allegory and the connection of this topic with the problem of temporality. The article concentrates on the conceptions of Walter Benjamin and Gilles Deleuze; texts by E. Bloch, R. Barthes, P. De Man, F. Ankersmit, G. Didi-Huberman, M.A. Holly, and others are analyzed in order to determine both their theoretical context and subsequent development. We also examine the interconnection between the concepts of allegory as temporality and empirical materials from the Renaissance, baroque and romanticism, which were frequently used for the conceptualizations. The main conclusion of the article is that anachronism as the main mechanism and practice in allegory, interpreted as a literary experience which overcomes temporal linearity, turns out to be the most important common point for different conceptualizations of allegory as a mode of temporality

Added: Dec 14, 2020
Article
Бессмертная О. Ю. Шаги/Steps. 2018. Т. 4. № 1. С. 9-44.

The paper analyses the discourse on pan-Islamism (the perceived Islamic menace both to the ‘global’ European civilization and the integrity of the Russian Empire) in Russian imperial structures (especially, the Ministry of the Interior) during 1910–1914. The discourse is considered as one of the institutionalized ways of constructing Russia’s ‘own’ Muslim other (along with the foreign one) and, simultaneously, as construction of an ‘internal enemy’. The key question considered in the paper is why the discourse preserved its productivity and explanatory force in spite of its instrumentalization revealed in the correspondence between the center and the local authorities and inter-ministerial conflicts (analyzed, mainly, for Turkestan and Bukhara): it shows that the discourse used to be manipulated according to situational needs. The complexity of the discourse’s functions is suggested as an explanation of its force. Its Orientalism (where Muslims were seen as an organic cultural / racial whole) combined with conspiracy theory formed a channel for the spy-mania that would explode in the WWI years: the nationalizing, unifying trends countering imperial diversity made their common ground. Its instrumentalization was going on within the framework of the same myth. Yet in the interaction with the positive (but equally ‘Orientalist’) modeling of  the Empire’s ‘loyal’ Muslim subjects, ‘pan-Islamism’ tended to be reinterpreted as a ‘revolutionary’ political party, thus echoing the fears born in the Russian revolutionary context. Mass literature nourished the whole. Compensating for the frustrations of the eve of WWI, the complex seems to reflect the officials’ vision of their own role as alienated from the population of the Empire and having but the intelligence service methods for controlling and governing it, while the colonial and domestic political orders were tightly intertwined.

Added: Apr 17, 2018
Article
Бессмертная О. Ю. Шаги/Steps. 2018. Т. 4. № 3. С. 195-212.

The article presents a section of the Introduction to the author’s Ph.D. thesis (2000), which reviews the approaches to studying representations of the Other (hence the Other, as well) that by the late 1990s formed in post-colonial theory and the ‘historical turn’ within the context of the critique of Orientalism and ‘classical’ anthropology. The aims of this publication are, on the one hand, to recall the approaches themselves (nowadays dominant, they are still not always recognized in some Russian researchers’ spontaneous practices), and, on the other, to give an example — within the context of discussions on post-Soviet scholars’ attitudes to the afore-mentioned critique — of its interpretation by a post-Soviet ‘Africanist’ (at the time, the author was one). While highlighting the critique of cultural determinism and essentialism, the conceptualization of the ‘West’ and the ‘Orient’ as social constructs, the historical understanding of ‘culture’, as well as renouncing its inner coherence and accentuating multi-level, situational and individualizing analysis (trends new at that time even for those post-Soviet scholars who pursued cultural studies opposed to the orthodox Soviet scholarship), the author also indicated a shift in the approaches under study -- from a hermeneutic ‘understanding’ of the Other to questions of identity. In looking for a way to combine the presumptions of the historical turn and the endeavors of such understanding, she suggested viewing representations of the Other as a sort of cultural boundary where the notions of ‘we’ and ‘they’ are most fully articulated, thus revealing cultural categories that underlie the process.

Added: Oct 6, 2018
Article
Логинов Н. И. Шаги/Steps. 2015. Т. 1. № 1. С. 147-158.

Numerous studies in clinical psychology still have not become the basis for rigorous and testable models that explain the etiology of delusions. It is assumed that the results of studies of normal functioning of thinking within cognitive psychology could be heuristically valuable for further investigation of such thought disorders. This article focuses on a review of existing cognitive models of delusions, which are based on current understanding of the functioning of normal thinking. The cognitive approach to the study of delusions allows us to draw conclusions about the fundamental heterogeneity of pathogenic mechanisms of delusion in organic and functional psychoses, and also that the content of a delusion represents the pattern of cognitive impairment.

Added: Jul 20, 2018
Article
Мещеряков А. Н. Шаги/Steps. 2018. № 1. С. 116-133.

The article is devoted to the analysis of the perception of Japanese literature of the Heian period in the USSR and Russia.

Added: Sep 25, 2018
Article
Майофис М. Л. Шаги/Steps. 2016. Т. 2. № 1. С. 44-81.

This article is an attempt at a microhistorical study. Through analysis of documents from the personal archive of social activist, pedagogue and military expert Boris Ivanovitch Zhurin (1890–1964), the author demonstrates that the year 1939 turned to be very important in his career. It was precisely in 1939 that Zhurin changed his previous “modest” profession of an engineer-constructor specializing in concrete buildings for the profession of military expert and for the role of social activist and publicist. As a military expert, he spent the years 1939-1940 writing a monograph about the interaction of different combat arms, including artillery and air reconnaissance, during the Russian offensive in June, 1917. He was convinced that learning from this experience would be vital during the next war. As a social activist and publicist, Zhurin invented, described and promoted a new social institute which he called “parents’ committees in multi-family dwellings,” insisting that such committees would be the best instrument to control and improve family education. This second “know-how” was also based on the idea of interaction, since the parents’ committees had to establish close relationships with district executive committees (ispolkomy), local Komsomol cells, school administration and school parents’ committees, as well as the management offces of apartment buildings. Detailed study of Zhurin’s archive and publications, combined with a reconstruction of the historical context of both 1939 and the “Thaw” years, lead the author to conclude that Zhurin saw Soviet society after the Great Terror as completely atomized, as demoralized by the low competence of the new army chiefs and state offcials, and as lacking channels for transmitting knowledge and experience. During 1939, as well as during the subsequent years of his professional and social activity, Zhurin sought to rebuild and intensify “horizontal” social ties.

Added: Oct 20, 2017
Article
Марей Е. С. Шаги/Steps. 2018. Т. 4. № 2. С. 120-138.

The article analyzes the image of the city of Rome, as it appears in the letters of Pope Gregory the Great (590–604). Gregory did a great deal to make Rome prosper and transformed it into one of the main spiritual centers of the Christian West. This was achieved thanks to the Pope’s relentless care about beautifying the city, about repairing the churches and founding monasteries, all of were testimony to the triumph of the Christian faith. Another, very important factor was the veneration of the relics of the saints, chiefly the apostles Peter and Paul. Gregory established a genuine cult of their worship, thereby turning Rome into a center of pilgrimage.

Added: Jul 18, 2018
Article
Епанова Ю. В. Шаги/Steps. 2016. Т. 2. № 1. С. 257-267.

This is an overview of the conference «Urban media studies: concerns, intersections and challenges», held at the Faculty of  Political Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia) on 24–25 September 2015. The review includes a description of the basic theoretical, methodological and empirical studies presented within the framework of the thematic sessions and plenary presentations.

Added: Nov 7, 2017
Article
Андреев М. Л. Шаги/Steps. 2019. Т. 5. № 3. С. 38-50.

The article juxtaposes two translations of Boccaccio’s The Decameron — the one by Alexander N. Veselovsky (1891–1892) and the other by Nikolai M. Liubimov (1970). What is unique and noteworthy here is that, over time, the more recent translation neither displaced the older nor lost ground to it; both versions found their proper niches in today’s book publishing market and hence, as one might infer, are intended for different categories of reader. Veselovsky, in his translation, keeps to the principle of formal fidelity to the original (‘literalism’): this reveals itself both on the level of certain intra-phraseological units (‘word-for-word’ translation) and in preservation of the original syntactic order of the source text. Incidentally, Veselovsky did not attempt to artificially anachronize the language. Liubimov, on the other hand, follows, in the main, the principles of the Soviet school of ‘creative’ translation. The language of Liubimov’s Decameron is the standard literary tongue of the 19th–20th centuries, which is moderately encrusted with Slavisms; it exhibits no modernizations, nor any particular verbal ingenuities that characterize, for instance, his translation of Rabelais. Unlike Veselovsky, Liubimov did not attempt to create a specific diction for his Decameron. Both translators refrain from re-creating the vast rhetorical array of Boccaccio. Veselovsky, at times, tugs at the language (though not outright violently); thanks to that technique of ‘ostranenie’ (defamiliarization), these linguistic displacements, this diction which has no direct analogs in the Russian tradition, he fills the void created by the lack of any counterparts of Decameron in the Russian literary tradition. Yet his action is far from complete; by and large, it is possible to argue that Veselovsky’s translation principally differs from Liubimov’s in that rather than bringing the source text to the target audience, it brings the audience to the source text.

Added: Nov 6, 2019
Article
Резвых П. В. Шаги/Steps. 2016. № 3. С. 224-237.

The article gives the first publication of the manuscript with the scetch of the utopic novel "The Church" by the Moscow pastor K.A.Sederholm and delivers a reconstruction of its content and its connection with Sederholms philosophical an theological works.

Added: Apr 13, 2015
Article
Пенская Е. Н., Зыкова Г. В. Шаги/Steps. 2021. Т. 7. С. 211-238.

"Children's Case" (2008) is the last lifetime book by Vs. N. Nekrasov. The book includes poems from different years, from the earliest (late 1950s - early 1960s) to texts that were completed when the proofreading was already being proofread, and therefore can be perceived as a "service of literary memory", a programmatic gesture. Since the reader perceives the book as an integral work, it seems essential to clarify the features of the history of its creation that influenced its character. The clarifications that make up the subject of the article are based on the memoirs of its authors and materials preserved by E. N. Penskaya. The wife of the poet A. I. Zhuravlev, S. V. Miturich (head of the publishing house "Three Squares") and E. N. Penskaya participated in the compilation of the book. Miturich proposed a structure partially implemented in the publication; Zhuravleva and Penskaya influenced the selection of poems, trying to address the book to the widest possible audience, including children; emphatically "adult" poems were eliminated. The "Children's case" was the fruit of collective work, to the result of which Nekrasov had a difficult attitude.

Added: Oct 21, 2021