The article examines the interpretation of Pompey the Great's (106–48 BC) image, in the medieval chronicle “Estoria de Espanna”, which was compiled in the vernacular (Castilian) language after 1270 at the court of Alfonso X the Wise, king of Castile and Leon (1252–1284). The authors emphasize the fact that, in contradiction to the modern tradition, when describing the conflict between Pompey and Caesar, the medieval chronicler sympathizes with the former. The authors explore the causes of this non-traditional interpretation and show the means used to construct the image (primary sources of the chronicle, the manner in which they are analysed, the style and specific language of the chronicler). The article includes a translation of some chapters from the chronicle (77–80 and 101–105) that present episodes from Pompey’s biography.
The paper deals with the choice between the Greek words βασιλεύς and ἄρχων used in the LXX translation of the Pentateuch to render the Hebrew melek. Having adduced the relevant passages with necessary textual comments, the author discusses the hypothesis of E. Bickerman that the choice is to be explained by self-censorship of the LXX translators, worried about the reception of the Greek Pentateuch by the Ptolemaic court and administration. The author concurs with critics of the hypothesis and suggests that the solution should be sought elsewhere, namely in the attitude of Second Temple Judaism towards the institution of monarchy in Israel. The last part of the paper deals with the similar strategy employed by the translators in the Greek Ezekiel.
The article considers 20th century philosophers’ and literary critics’ focus on the problem of allegory and the connection of this topic with the problem of temporality. The article concentrates on the conceptions of Walter Benjamin and Gilles Deleuze; texts by E. Bloch, R. Barthes, P. De Man, F. Ankersmit, G. Didi-Huberman, M.A. Holly, and others are analyzed in order to determine both their theoretical context and subsequent development. We also examine the interconnection between the concepts of allegory as temporality and empirical materials from the Renaissance, baroque and romanticism, which were frequently used for the conceptualizations. The main conclusion of the article is that anachronism as the main mechanism and practice in allegory, interpreted as a literary experience which overcomes temporal linearity, turns out to be the most important common point for different conceptualizations of allegory as a mode of temporality.
The paper analyses the discourse on pan-Islamism (the perceived Islamic menace both to the ‘global’ European civilization and the integrity of the Russian Empire) in Russian imperial structures (especially, the Ministry of the Interior) during 1910–1914. The discourse is considered as one of the institutionalized ways of constructing Russia’s ‘own’ Muslim other (along with the foreign one) and, simultaneously, as construction of an ‘internal enemy’. The key question considered in the paper is why the discourse preserved its productivity and explanatory force in spite of its instrumentalization revealed in the correspondence between the center and the local authorities and inter-ministerial conflicts (analyzed, mainly, for Turkestan and Bukhara): it shows that the discourse used to be manipulated according to situational needs. The complexity of the discourse’s functions is suggested as an explanation of its force. Its Orientalism (where Muslims were seen as an organic cultural / racial whole) combined with conspiracy theory formed a channel for the spy-mania that would explode in the WWI years: the nationalizing, unifying trends countering imperial diversity made their common ground. Its instrumentalization was going on within the framework of the same myth. Yet in the interaction with the positive (but equally ‘Orientalist’) modeling of the Empire’s ‘loyal’ Muslim subjects, ‘pan-Islamism’ tended to be reinterpreted as a ‘revolutionary’ political party, thus echoing the fears born in the Russian revolutionary context. Mass literature nourished the whole. Compensating for the frustrations of the eve of WWI, the complex seems to reflect the officials’ vision of their own role as alienated from the population of the Empire and having but the intelligence service methods for controlling and governing it, while the colonial and domestic political orders were tightly intertwined.
The article presents a section of the Introduction to the author’s Ph.D. thesis (2000), which reviews the approaches to studying representations of the Other (hence the Other, as well) that by the late 1990s formed in post-colonial theory and the ‘historical turn’ within the context of the critique of Orientalism and ‘classical’ anthropology. The aims of this publication are, on the one hand, to recall the approaches themselves (nowadays dominant, they are still not always recognized in some Russian researchers’ spontaneous practices), and, on the other, to give an example — within the context of discussions on post-Soviet scholars’ attitudes to the afore-mentioned critique — of its interpretation by a post-Soviet ‘Africanist’ (at the time, the author was one). While highlighting the critique of cultural determinism and essentialism, the conceptualization of the ‘West’ and the ‘Orient’ as social constructs, the historical understanding of ‘culture’, as well as renouncing its inner coherence and accentuating multi-level, situational and individualizing analysis (trends new at that time even for those post-Soviet scholars who pursued cultural studies opposed to the orthodox Soviet scholarship), the author also indicated a shift in the approaches under study -- from a hermeneutic ‘understanding’ of the Other to questions of identity. In looking for a way to combine the presumptions of the historical turn and the endeavors of such understanding, she suggested viewing representations of the Other as a sort of cultural boundary where the notions of ‘we’ and ‘they’ are most fully articulated, thus revealing cultural categories that underlie the process.
Numerous studies in clinical psychology still have not become the basis for rigorous and testable models that explain the etiology of delusions. It is assumed that the results of studies of normal functioning of thinking within cognitive psychology could be heuristically valuable for further investigation of such thought disorders. This article focuses on a review of existing cognitive models of delusions, which are based on current understanding of the functioning of normal thinking. The cognitive approach to the study of delusions allows us to draw conclusions about the fundamental heterogeneity of pathogenic mechanisms of delusion in organic and functional psychoses, and also that the content of a delusion represents the pattern of cognitive impairment.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the perception of Japanese literature of the Heian period in the USSR and Russia.
This article is an attempt at a microhistorical study. Through analysis of documents from the personal archive of social activist, pedagogue and military expert Boris Ivanovitch Zhurin (1890–1964), the author demonstrates that the year 1939 turned to be very important in his career. It was precisely in 1939 that Zhurin changed his previous “modest” profession of an engineer-constructor specializing in concrete buildings for the profession of military expert and for the role of social activist and publicist. As a military expert, he spent the years 1939-1940 writing a monograph about the interaction of different combat arms, including artillery and air reconnaissance, during the Russian offensive in June, 1917. He was convinced that learning from this experience would be vital during the next war. As a social activist and publicist, Zhurin invented, described and promoted a new social institute which he called “parents’ committees in multi-family dwellings,” insisting that such committees would be the best instrument to control and improve family education. This second “know-how” was also based on the idea of interaction, since the parents’ committees had to establish close relationships with district executive committees (ispolkomy), local Komsomol cells, school administration and school parents’ committees, as well as the management offces of apartment buildings. Detailed study of Zhurin’s archive and publications, combined with a reconstruction of the historical context of both 1939 and the “Thaw” years, lead the author to conclude that Zhurin saw Soviet society after the Great Terror as completely atomized, as demoralized by the low competence of the new army chiefs and state offcials, and as lacking channels for transmitting knowledge and experience. During 1939, as well as during the subsequent years of his professional and social activity, Zhurin sought to rebuild and intensify “horizontal” social ties.
The article analyzes the image of the city of Rome, as it appears in the letters of Pope Gregory the Great (590–604). Gregory did a great deal to make Rome prosper and transformed it into one of the main spiritual centers of the Christian West. This was achieved thanks to the Pope’s relentless care about beautifying the city, about repairing the churches and founding monasteries, all of were testimony to the triumph of the Christian faith. Another, very important factor was the veneration of the relics of the saints, chiefly the apostles Peter and Paul. Gregory established a genuine cult of their worship, thereby turning Rome into a center of pilgrimage.
This is an overview of the conference «Urban media studies: concerns, intersections and challenges», held at the Faculty of Political Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia) on 24–25 September 2015. The review includes a description of the basic theoretical, methodological and empirical studies presented within the framework of the thematic sessions and plenary presentations.
The article juxtaposes two translations of Boccaccio’s The Decameron — the one by Alexander N. Veselovsky (1891–1892) and the other by Nikolai M. Liubimov (1970). What is unique and noteworthy here is that, over time, the more recent translation neither displaced the older nor lost ground to it; both versions found their proper niches in today’s book publishing market and hence, as one might infer, are intended for different categories of reader. Veselovsky, in his translation, keeps to the principle of formal fidelity to the original (‘literalism’): this reveals itself both on the level of certain intra-phraseological units (‘word-for-word’ translation) and in preservation of the original syntactic order of the source text. Incidentally, Veselovsky did not attempt to artificially anachronize the language. Liubimov, on the other hand, follows, in the main, the principles of the Soviet school of ‘creative’ translation. The language of Liubimov’s Decameron is the standard literary tongue of the 19th–20th centuries, which is moderately encrusted with Slavisms; it exhibits no modernizations, nor any particular verbal ingenuities that characterize, for instance, his translation of Rabelais. Unlike Veselovsky, Liubimov did not attempt to create a specific diction for his Decameron. Both translators refrain from re-creating the vast rhetorical array of Boccaccio. Veselovsky, at times, tugs at the language (though not outright violently); thanks to that technique of ‘ostranenie’ (defamiliarization), these linguistic displacements, this diction which has no direct analogs in the Russian tradition, he fills the void created by the lack of any counterparts of Decameron in the Russian literary tradition. Yet his action is far from complete; by and large, it is possible to argue that Veselovsky’s translation principally differs from Liubimov’s in that rather than bringing the source text to the target audience, it brings the audience to the source text.
The article gives the first publication of the manuscript with the scetch of the utopic novel "The Church" by the Moscow pastor K.A.Sederholm and delivers a reconstruction of its content and its connection with Sederholms philosophical an theological works.
The paper offers a brief justification for a new type of “linguistic-philological” commentary that could be a useful companion for classic Old Chinese texts. Within such a commentary, elements of purely philological analysis, inherited from the Chinese tradition itself, could be organically and systematically integrated with and cross-checked against the latest achievements in Old Chinese etymology, lexicology, and grammatical studies. More specifically, I discuss the basic structure of such a commentary for the Shījīng (“Book of Songs”), the oldest and one of the most culturally significant collections of Chinese poetry that has been the object of detailed philological study for more than 2000 years, as well as the principal provider of material for historical studies on Early Old Chinese phonology, grammar, and lexicon in the 20th century. The structure is then illustrated with an actual example (several stanzas from the very first poem of the Shījīng, Cry of the Ospreys).
The central issue of this article is the specific character of diplomatic correspondence in the 16th century and, as a consequence, the difficulty in determining whether or not some examples of Ivan the Terrible’s correspondence belong to the realm of diplomacy. There were two distinct lines in Ivan’s diplomatic correspondence — with the rulers of Europe and with those of the conventional “East”; this in addition to the nature of medieval diplomacy as a relationship between the authority and charisma of individual rulers, rather than between independent and equal subjects of international law (as becomes the case by the Early Modern period). In dealing with this problem, this article suggests a comparative analysis of two conditionally distinguished discourses in Ivan the Terrible’s diplomatic correspondence — “Eastern” and “Western” ones. However, the model of correspondence used for contacts between the Muscovite State and the successors of the Golden Horde was frequently being extended to the correspondence with European rulers. This took place in those cases where Ivan believed his “Western” interlocutor unworthy of being granted a status equal to Ivan’s own and, as a result, used in his missives elements of his correspondence with the successors of the Golden Horde, who by then occupied a lower, semi-subordinate position in Ivan’s hierarchy of states. The article lays out conclusions regarding the significance of such examples for the theoretical problem of drawing the boundaries between diplomacy and non-diplomacy in the corpus of Ivan the Terrible’s letters. We show that the the question of how the addressee of Ivan’s missives was viewed – as a diplomatic partner or a “vassal” – was an essential part of the way diplomacy was considered in the 16th century Muscovite State.
The paper studies constructions that involve the name of the decade - the twenties, the thirties, the forties etc. – and an adjective in attributive function. The basic assumption is that these constructions reflect the mnemonic pattern of each of the decade from the Soviet and PostSoviet history, the analysis of the constructions therefore is a clue to define these patterns. The data of the research has been obtained from the Russian National Corpus. Six semantic adjectival classes has been designated, each of the setting its own projection of the mnemonic pattern of the decade in the language. Comparison of the collocations of different adjectives and decade names shows the eminent time periods of the 20thcentury, that exist in the cultural memory, and extracts associative traits connected with the decades. As a result, the research shows the difference in reception of the decades and therefore determines the memory landscape of the Soviet and PostSoviet history.
The article presents an overview of studies on subsequent search misses (satisfaction of search) effect in visual search. The subsequent search misses phenomenon occur s in a visual search task when a subject fails to continue to search for a subsequent target after finding an initial one (usually a second target is less silent that the first one). Previous studies ha d revealed a number of factors that influence subsequent search misses: time of stimuli presentation, probability of two stimuli presentation, working memory load and others. The article contains an analysis of experimental research on subsequent search misses and the theoretical models that attempt to explain this phenomenon.