Continuous to discrete: Ensemble-based segmentation in the perception of multiple feature conjunctions
Although objects around us vary in a number of continuous dimensions (color, size, orientation, etc.), we tend to perceive the objects using more discrete, categorical descriptions (e.g., berries and leaves). Previously, we described howcontinuous ensemblestatistics ofsimple featuresaretransformedinto categorical classes: Thevisual system tests whether the feature distribution has one or several peaks, each representing a likely “category”. Here, we tested the mechanism of segmentation for more complex conjunctions of features. Observers discriminated between two textures ﬁlled with lines of various lengths and orientations, which had same distributions between the textures, but opposite directions of correlations. Critically, feature distributions could be “segmentable” (only extreme feature values and a large gap between them) or “non-segmentable” (both extreme and middle values with smooth transition are present). Segmentable displays yielded steeper psychometric functions indicating better discrimination (Experiment 1). The eﬀect of segmentability arises early in visual processing (Experiment 2) and is likely to be provided by global sampling of the entire ﬁeld (Experiment 3). Also, rapid segmentation requires both feature dimensions having a “segmentable” distribution supporting division of the textures into categorical classes of conjunctions. We propose that observers select items from one side (peak) of one dimension and sample mean diﬀerences along a second dimension within the selected subset. In this scenario, subset selection is alimiting factor (Experiment 4) oftexture discrimination. Yet, segmentability provided by the sharp feature distributions seems to facilitate both subset selection and mean comparison.
This article concerns the problem of predicting the size of company's customer base in case of solving the task of managing its clients. The author purposes a new approach to segment-oriented predicting the size of clients based on adopting the Staroverov's employees moving model. Besides the article includes the limitations of using this model and its modification for each type of relations of the client and the company.
The present volume is a collection of the 8th International Cognitive Linguistics Congress proceedings which encompass theoretical and methodological issues of cognitive linguistics: conceptualization and categorization, cognitive modelling, cognitive terminology, cognitive pragmatics, cognitive facets of multimodality in human communication and discourse, computer assisted communication vs. thinking and speech production; contrastive linguistic analysis and knowledge transfer; cognitive bases of translation and interpreting.
The volume is designated for a wide range of experts in the field of cognitive linguistics, discourse analzsis, LSP and terminology, translation theory and practice.
The effect of conceptual flexibility involves inclusion of attributes that are irrelevant to the formed category in the concept and their further handling where required. The previous studies show that the conceptual flexibility effect arises while performing feature inference tasks and doesn’t arise while performing classification tasks. In the last case attention becomes too focused on one attribute. In the study the hypothesis according to which the conceptual flexibility effect may arise while performing classification tasks is tested on a sample of students (N=60). As this take place objects with attributes that are functionally connected and potentially related to semantic knowledge of the students are used as stimuli.
The material of the present paper is grounded on the holist algebraic method (Q-analysis) proposed by English mathematician and physicist R.H.Atkin. At its core, the approach is aimed at both analysis of systems structures (in the form of simplicial complexes K, which is formed by a set of properly adjoined objects called simplexes) and calculation of numeric estimates of structural complexity of systems based on the results of such analysis.
Turning complexity estimate of system’s structure into a real number creates additional difficulties in the comparison of two different complexes because there is no real verbal scale, which would have been accustomed to human beings and would allow a group of experts to express opinions and draw easily conclusions about degree of complexity of K at each particular dimensional level of its analysis. Therefore, the present paper deals with consideration of the approach that is more focused on human perception of characteristics obtained, mental comprehension and formation (comparison) of personal constructs in psychological space (or, P-space) – modified structural complexity estimate is based right on notions of distance and similarity within psychological space.
Our experimental study looked into the way existing knowledge influences the way subjects con- struct the rules of categorization and modify them as they are applied. We modified the experiment of E. Wisniewski and D. Medina (1994) by asking the respondents not only to create a categorization rule, but also to use it to categorize new images, and we looked at the frequency and type of subsequent rule modification. The respondents, 114 university students, were given a set of images drawn by children and asked to identify their common features under one of the four conditions: relevant prior knowledge (participants were told that the drawings had been made by children with high and low creativity), stan- dard condition (participants were told the drawings had been made by children from groups A and B), standard condition with examples (one sample of drawings from each group was shown), and irrelevant knowledge. We found that under the relevant prior knowledge condition, compared to the other three conditions, the respondents tended to construct more complex and abstract rules and to change them more frequently when they categorized new objects. We also found that rule modifications during usage led to more complex and abstract rules under all four conditions. We interpret the findings as evidence for two stages of categorization, the first stage involving search for existing generalizations in semantic memory, and the second stage involving adaptation of prior knowledge to current conditions.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.