Современные дискуссии о сетевых организациях и сетевом взаимодействии. Методология анализа и проблема практического применения
One of the most discussed theoretical and practical issues in Russian political science is political networks. Researchers differently designate the problem field, and key concepts filling it (network policy analysis, network political communication, network identity, network organizations). In this paper, the authors try to analyze and compare the existing approaches already established in other countries with domestic research and identify in our opinion the most appropriate definition and problem field of the study of the phenomenon of political networks. In the paper the authors analyze: the network societytheory of M. Castells, actor-network theory of B. Latour, the research on network organizations by J. Arquilla and D. Ronfeldt, the concept of «assemblage theory» of G. Deleuze and F. Guattari and the theory of “multitude” of A. Negri and M. Hardt, the concept of “trust networks” by C. Tilly. The authors consider the most productive approach developed by the followers of G. Deleuze and F. Guattari - M. Hardt, A. Negri. Within the framework of this methodology, the division into social and technological is overcome, processes are examined through studies of “assemblages” consisting of both social, technological and natural elements. The most actual for political science in the field of research of network organizations and network interaction, the authors singled out: the transformation of social and political structures, the emergence of political parties of a new type, trying to complement traditional structures with horizontal network type elements, network structures of civil society (social and protest movements), network structures as an instrument of social and political mobilization, the problem of developing an effective decision-making process and the role of the internet and social media in the processes of democratization.