Nonbolometric bottleneck in electron-phonon relaxation in ultrathin WSi films
We developed the model of the internal phonon bottleneck to describe the energy exchange between the
acoustically soft ultrathin metal film and acoustically rigid substrate. Discriminating phonons in the film into
two groups, escaping and nonescaping, we show that electrons and nonescaping phonons may form a unified
subsystem, which is cooled down only due to interactions with escaping phonons, either due to direct phonon
conversion or indirect sequential interaction with an electronic system. Using an amplitude-modulated absorption
of the sub-THz radiation technique,we studied electron-phonon relaxation in ultrathin disordered films of tungsten
silicide.We found an experimental proof of the internal phonon bottleneck. The experiment and simulation based
on the proposed model agree well, resulting in τe−ph ∼ 140–190 ps at TC = 3.4K, supporting the results of earlier
measurements by independent techniques.
Achievement of the ultimate sensitivity along with a high spectral resolution is one of the frequently addressed problems, as the complication of the applied and fundamental scientific tasks being explored is growing up gradually. In our work, we have investigated performance of a superconducting nanowire photon-counting detector operating in the coherent mode for detection of weak signals at the telecommunication wavelength. Quantum-noise limited sensitivity of the detector was ensured by the nature of the photon-counting detection and restricted by the quantum efficiency of the detector only. Spectral resolution given by the heterodyne technique and was defined by the linewidth and stability of the Local Oscillator (LO). Response bandwidth was found to coincide with the detector's pulse width, which, in turn, could be controlled by the nanowire length. In addition, the system noise bandwidth was shown to be governed by the electronics/lab equipment, and the detector noise bandwidth is predicted to depend on its jitter. As have been demonstrated, a very small amount of the LO power (of the order of a few picowatts down to hundreds of femtowatts) was required for sufficient detection of the test signal, and eventual optimization could lead to further reduction of the LO power required, which would perfectly suit for the foreseen development of receiver matrices and the need for detection of ultra-low signals at a level of less-than-one-photon per second.
These notes have appeared as a result of a one-term course in superfluidity and superconductivity given by the author to fourth-year undergraduate students and first-year graduate students of the Department of Physics, Moscow State University of Education. The goal was not to give a detailed picture of these two macroscopic quantum phenomena with an extensive coverage of the experimental background and all the modern developments, but rather to show how the knowledge of undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical physics could be used to discuss the basic concepts and simple problems, and draw parallels between superconductivity and superfluidity.
Superconductivity and superfluidity are two phenomena where quantum mechanics, typically constrained to the microscopic realm, shows itself on the macroscopic level. Conceptually and mathematically, these phenomena are related very closely, and some results obtained for one can, with a few modifications, be immediately carried over to the other. However, the student of these notes should be aware of important differences between superconductivity and superfluidity that stem mainly from two facts: (1) electrons in a superconductor carry a charge, therefore one has to take into account interaction with electromagnetic radiation; (2) electrons move in a lattice, therefore phonons play a role not only a mediators of attractive interaction between pairs of electrons, but also as scatterers of charge carriers.
Although these are notes on superfluidity and superconductivity, and there are a few cross-references, the two subjects can be studied independently with, perhaps, a little extra work by the student to fill in the gaps resulting from such study. The material of Chapter 1 introduces the method of second quantisation that is commonly used to discuss systems with many interacting particles. It is then applied in Chaper 2 to treat the uniform weakly interacting Bose gas within the approach by N. Bogoliubov, and in Chapter 4 to formulate the theory of the uniform superconducting state put forth by J. Bardeen, L. Cooper and R. Schrieffer. Chapter 3 presents the theory proposed independently by E. Gross and L. Pitaevskii of a non-uniform weakly interacting Bose gas, with a discussion of vortices, rotation of the condensate, and the Bogoliubov equations. In Chapter 5 we discuss the Ginzburd-Landau theory of a non-uniform superconductor near the critical temperature and apply it to a few simple problems such as the surface energy of the boundary between a normal metal and a superconductor, critical current and critical magnetic field, and vortices.
Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a "backdoor" in the detector biasing scheme. Under bright-light illumination, SSPD becomes resistive and remains "latched" in the resistive state even when the light is switched off. While the SSPD is latched, Eve can simulate SSPD single-photon response by sending strong light pulses, thus deceiving Bob. We developed the experimental setup for investigation of a dependence on latching threshold of SSPD on optical pulse length and peak power. By knowing latching threshold it is possible to understand essential requirements for development countermeasures against blinding attack on quantum key distribution system with SSPDs.
We demonstrate evidence of coherent magnetic flux tunneling through superconducting nanowires patterned in a thin highly disordered NbN film. The phenomenon is revealed as a superposition of flux states in a fully metallic superconducting loop with the nanowire acting as an effective tunnel barrier for the magnetic flux, and reproducibly observed in different wires. The flux superposition achieved in the fully metallic NbN rings proves the universality of the phenomenon previously reported for InOx .We perform microwave spectroscopy and study the tunneling amplitude as a function of the wire width, compare the experimental results with theories, and estimate the parameters for existing theoretical models.
The role of Si (111) substrate surface preparation and buffer layer composition in the growth, electronic and optical properties of the GaN nanowires (NWs) synthesized via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy is studied. A comparison study of GaN NWs growth on the bare Si (111) substrate, silicon nitride interlayer, predeposited AlN and GaOx buffer layers, monolayer thick Ga wetting layer and GaN seeding layer prepared by the droplet epitaxy is performed. It is demonstrated that the homogeneity and the morphology of the NW arrays drastically depend on the chosen buffer layer and surface preparation technique. An effect of the buffer and seeding layers on the nucleation and desorption is also discussed. The lowest NWs surface density of 14 μm−2 is obtained on AlN buffer layer and the highest density exceeding the latter value by more than an order of magnitude corresponds to the growth on the 0.3 ML thick Ga wetting layer. It is shown, that the highest NWs mean elongation rate is obtained with AlN buffer layer, while the lowest elongation rate corresponds to the bare Si (111) surface and it is twice as lower as the first case. It is found, that use of AlN buffer layer corresponds to the most homogeneous NWs array with the smallest length dispersion while the least homogeneous array corresponds to the bare Si substrate. Vertically aligned GaN NWs array on the wide bandgap GaOx semiconductor buffer layer grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition demonstrates its potential for electronic applications. Photoluminescence (PL) study of the synthesized samples is characterized by an intense optical response related to the excitons bound to neutral donors. The highest PL intensity is obtained in the sample with AlN buffer layer.
Ensembles of Nanowires (NW) of iron group metals-pure metals (Fe, Ni and Co) and their alloys (Fe-Ni, Fe-Co) were obtained using matrix synthesis technique based on polymer track matrixes. Compositions of electrolytes were chosen – the salt of one corresponding metal (in the first case) and two salts (for second case). The galvanic process was investigated and it was found that it consists of different stages. Deposition of metal inside the pores has non-linear character due to diffusion limitation. The specific features of the next part (formation and growing of the “caps”) was also studied. Electron microscopy, X-rays analysis, Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetic hysteresis were applied to investigate the dependence of structure and magnetic properties of the NW on electrodeposition conditions. It was found that the composition of two-component NWs differs from the composition of electrolyte and different at different parts of NW. Mössbauer spectroscopy gave possibility to estimate hyperfine parameters for Fe-Co NWs. For Fe-Ni NWs it was supposed that the spectra could be presented as superposition of at least three magnetic sextets with hyperfine parameters Bhf 27-33 T. It was shown that Fe-Co samples have “hard magnetic” properties, while Fe-Ni samples have “soft magnetic” parameters. The dependence of these parameters on the synthesis was demonstrated.
The thermodynamical potential of a superconducting quantum cylinder is calculated. The dependence of the critical temperature and the heat capacity of a superconducting system of the surface concentration of electrons and on the radius of the nanotube is studied.
Overview This book concisely presents the latest trends in the physics of superconductivity and superfluidity and magnetismin novel systems, as well as the problem of BCS-BEC crossover in ultracold quantum gases and high-Tc superconductors. It further illuminates the intensive exchange of ideas between these closely related fields of condensed matter physics over the last 30 years of their dynamic development. The content is based on the author’s original findings obtained at the Kapitza Institute, as well as advanced lecture courses he held at the Moscow Engineering Physical Institute, Amsterdam University, Loughborough University and LPTMS Orsay between 1994 and 2011. In addition to the findings of his group, the author discusses the most recent concepts in these fields, obtained both in Russia and in the West. The book consists of 16 chapters which are divided into four parts. The first part describes recent developments in superfluid hydrodynamics of quantum fluids and solids, including the fashionable subject of possible supersolidity in quantum crystals of 4He, while the second describes BCS-BEC crossover in quantum Fermi-Bose gases and mixtures, as well as in the underdoped states of cuprates. The third part is devoted to non-phonon mechanisms of superconductivity in unconventional (anomalous) superconductors, including some important aspects of the theory of high-Tc superconductivity. |The last part considers the anomalous normal state of novel superconductive materials and materials with colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The book offers a valuable guide for senior-level undergraduate students and graduate students, postdoctoral and other researchers specializing in solid-state and low-temperature physics.
This volume is dedicated to amorphous chalcogenides, namely, chalcogenide glasses and phase-change alloys. The observation by B T Kolomiets and N A Goryunova in the mid-1950s of semiconducting properties of chalcogenide glasses opened a new field in the physics of semiconductors: amorphous semiconductors. This discovery was highly unexpected since, until then, is was believed that the presence of the forbidden energy gap, characteristic of semiconductors, was a consequence of the presence of long-range crystalline order, which is, by definition, absent in glasses. Phase-change alloys comprise materials whose properties exhibit a pronounced property contrast between the amorphous and crystalline phases. These materials are widely used in optical memories (from CDs to BluRay discs) and now also in the latest generation of non-volatile electronic memory recently commercialized by Micron and Intel under the trade name of Optane. The volume consists of three part, where we tried to keep balance between basic and applied aspects of amorphous chalcogenides.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.