Plasmon spectroscopy methods are highly sensitive to the small volumes of material due to subwavelength localization of light increasing light-matter interaction. Recent research has shown a high potential of plasmon quantum generator (spaser) or amplifier (sped) for sensing in the infrared optical region. Trinitrotoluene (TNT) molecules fingerprints are considered as an example. Basing on Lindblad equations, we implement full quantum mechanical theory of graphene plasmon generator to investigate how a small amount of absorbing atoms influences the spectrum of a graphene spaser. We analyze the optimal type of an active medium, the number of active molecules, and the pump level to achieve the highest sensitivity and show that optimized structure is sensitive to dozens of atoms. Our research is useful for the development of near- and mid-IR spectroscopy based on plasmon quantum amplifier.

A nonstationary anomalous Hall current is calculated for a voltage biased Josephson junction, which is composed of two s-wave superconducting contacts deposited on the top of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI). A homogeneous Zeeman field was assumed at the surface of the TI. The problem has been considered within the ballistic approximation and on the assumption that tunneling of electrons between contacts and the surface of the TI is weak. In this regime the Josephson current has no features of the 4π-periodic topological effect which is associated with Andreev bound states. It is shown that the Hall current oscillates in time. The phase of these oscillations is shifted by π/2 with respect to the Josephson current and their amplitude linearly decreases with the electric potential difference between contacts. It is also shown that the Hall current cannot be induced by a stationary phase difference of the contact's order parameters.A nonstationary anomalous Hall current is calculated for a voltage biased Josephson junction, which is composed of two s-wave superconducting contacts deposited on the top of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI). A homogeneous Zeeman field was assumed at the surface of the TI. The problem has been considered within the ballistic approximation and on the assumption that tunneling of electrons between contacts and the surface of the TI is weak. In this regime the Josephson current has no features of the 4π-periodic topological effect which is associated with Andreev bound states. It is shown that the Hall current oscillates in time. The phase of these oscillations is shifted by π/2 with respect to the Josephson current and their amplitude linearly decreases with the electric potential difference between contacts. It is also shown that the Hall current cannot be induced by a stationary phase difference of the contact's order parameters.

We study thermodynamic manifestations of the chiral anomaly in disordered Weyl semimetals. We focus, in particular, on the effect which we call “adiabatic dechiralization,” the phenomenon in which a change in temperature and/or an absorption or release of heat results from applying parallel electric and magnetic fields that change the imbalance of quasiparticles with different chiralities (at different Weyl nodes). This effect is similar to that of adiabatic demagnetization, which is commonly used as a method of low-temperature refrigeration. We describe this phenomenon quantitatively and discuss experimental conditions favorable for its observation. A related phenomenon, which we analyze and which is readily observable in experiments, is the dependency of the heat capacity of a Weyl semimetal on parallel electric and magnetic fields.

Concentration of light into a nanospot is essential for the heat assisted magnetic recording, biomedical imaging, sensing, and nanolasing. We propose a novel all-dielectric optical field concentrator, which focuses the light, pumped through the waveguide, into a hot nanospot, which is much smaller than the wavelength. The dissipative loss, which is characteristic to a plasmonic nanoantenna, is absent in the dielectric concentrator. Therefore, the detrimental thermal effects almost vanish, which gives an opportunity to use the concentrator for the heat-assisted magnetic recording. The electric field is much enhanced in the proposed new device at the vertex of the dielectric beak, which is attached to the dielectric resonator. The resonator in turn is pumped through the special waveguide. The electric field enhancement and concentration is achieved by longitudinal polarization of the beak vertex, which is exposed to em electric field generated by the pumped resonator. The spatial scale of the hot spot, where the field concentrates, is determined by the curvature of the vertex and can be of few nanometers. We take as a design concept the cylindrical waveguide, the spherical resonator, and the elliptic beak. The rectangular, 2.5-dimensional design of the light concentrator is also considered.

Strong interaction among charge carriers can make them move like viscous fluid. Here we explore alternating current (AC) effects in viscous electronics. In the Ohmic case, incompressible current distribution in a sample adjusts fast to a time-dependent voltage on the electrodes, while in the viscous case, momentum diffusion makes for retardation and for the possibility of propagating slow shear waves. We focus on specific geometries that showcase interesting aspects of such waves: current parallel to a one-dimensional defect and current applied across a long strip. We find that the phase velocity of the wave propagating along the strip respectively increases/decreases with the frequency for no-slip/no-stress boundary conditions. This is so because when the frequency or strip width goes to zero (alternatively, viscosity go to infinity), the wavelength of the current pattern tends to infinity in the no-stress case and to a finite value in a general case. We also show that for DC current across a strip with no-stress boundary, there only one pair of vortices, while there is an infinite vortex chain for all other types of boundary conditions.

A numerical study of Anderson transition on random regular graphs (RRGs) with diagonal disorder is performed. The problem can be described as a tight-binding model on a lattice with N sites that is locally a tree with constant connectivity. In a certain sense, the RRG ensemble can be seen as an infinite-dimensional (d→∞) cousin of the Anderson model in d dimensions. We focus on the delocalized side of the transition and stress the importance of finite-size effects. We show that the data can be interpreted in terms of the finite-size crossover from a small (N >> Nc) to a large (N >> Nc) system, where Nc is the correlation volume diverging exponentially at the transition. A distinct feature of this crossover is a nonmonotonicity of the spectral and wave-function statistics, which is related to properties of the critical phase in the studied model and renders the finite-size analysis highly nontrivial. Our results support an analytical prediction that states in the delocalized phase (and at N >> Nc) are ergodic in the sense that their inverse participation ratio scales as 1/N

We investigate the subgap transport properties of a S-F-Ne structure. Here S (Ne) is a superconducting (normal) electrode, and F is either a ferromagnet or a normal wire in the presence of an exchange or a spin- splitting Zeeman field respectively. By solving the quasiclassical equations we first analyze the behavior of the subgap current, known as the Andreev current, as a function of the field strength for different values of the voltage, temperature and length of the junction. We show that there is a critical value of the bias voltage V * above which the Andreev current is enhanced by the spin-splitting field. This unexpected behavior can be explained as the competition between two-particle tunneling processes and decoherence mechanisms originated from the temperature, voltage and exchange field respectively. We also show that at finite temperature the Andreev current has a peak for values of the exchange field close to the superconducting gap. Finally, we compute the differential conductance and show that its measurement can be used as an accurate way of determining the strength of spin-splitting fields smaller than the superconducting gap.

Self-duality or matching between the magnetic and the condensate coherence lengths is a fundamental property of isotropic superconductors at the critical Bogomolnyi point (B point). The self-dual state of the condensate is infinitely degenerate, which is the core reason for the sharp transition between the superconductivity types in the nearest vicinity of the critical temperature Tc. Below Tc nonlocal interactions in the condensate remove the degeneracy, which leads to the appearance of a finite intertype (IT) domain between types I and II. This domain exhibits the mixed state with exotic field-condensate configurations and nonstandard magnetic response, which cannot be understood within the dichotomy of the conventional superconductivity types. At a first glance, this picture does not apply to an anisotropic system because no spatial matching between the condensate and magnetic field can be generally expected for direction-dependent characteristic lengths. However, contrary to these expectations, here we demonstrate that anisotropic superconductors follow the same scenario of the interchange between types I and II. In anisotropic materials the IT domain is governed by the B point of the effective isotropic model obtained by the appropriate scaling transformation of the initial anisotropic formalism. This transformation depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, and thus the superconductivity type of strongly anisotropic materials can be dependent on this direction.

We study anisotropies of the helicity modulus, excitation spectrum, sound velocity, and angle-resolved luminescence spectrum in a two-dimensional system of interacting excitons in a periodic potential. Analytical expressions for anisotropic corrections to the quantities characterizing superfluidity are obtained. We consider particularly the case of dipolar excitons in quantum wells. For GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures as well as MoS2/hBN/MoS2 and MoSe2/hBN/WSe2 transition-metal dichalcogenide bilayers estimates of the magnitude of the predicted effects are given. We also present a method to control superfluid motion and to determine the helicity modulus in generic dipolar systems.

Circular dichroism in optical second harmonic generation (CD-SHG) is studied in planar symmetrical arrays of G-shaped and mirror-G-shaped nanostructures. Anisotropic CD-SHG measurements demonstrate a strong dependence of the value and the sign of theCD effect on the angle of incidence of the fundamental radiation. We show that both dipole and higher order multipole components of the second order susceptibility are responsible for theCD response from G-shaped nanostructures.

We propose a setup involving Majorana bound states (MBS) hosted by a vortex on a superconducting surface of a 3D topological insulator (TI). We consider a narrow channel drilled across a TI slab with both sides covered by s-wave superconductor. In the presence of a vortex pinned to such a channel, it acts as a ballistic nanowire connecting the superconducting surfaces, with a pair of MBS localized in it. The energies of the MBS possess a 4π-periodic dependence on the superconductive phase difference φ between the surfaces. It results in the appearance of an anomalous term in the current-phase relation Ia(φ) for the supercurrent flowing along the channel between the superconductive surfaces. We have calculated the shape of the 4π-periodic function Ia(φ), as well as the dependence of its amplitude on temperature and system parameters.

We investigate the effects of quantum (zero-temperature) long-wavelength fluctuations of free-standing crystalline membranes, which are two-dimensional objects embedded into three-dimensional space. The fluctuations produce logarithmic renormalization of elasticity and bending moduli of the membranes. We find one-loop RG equations to demonstrate that the system is in the “asymptotic freedom” regime; that is, the quantum

fluctuations destabilize the flat membrane phase.

We consider a small itinerant ferromagnet exposed to an external magnetic field and strongly driven by a thermally induced spin current. For this model, we derive the quasi-classical equations of motion for the magnetization where the effects of a dynamical non-equilibrium distribution function are taken into account self-consistently. We obtain the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation supplemented by a spin-transfer torque term of Slonczewski form. We identify a regime of persistent precessions in which we find an enhancement of the thermoelectric current by the pumping current.

The Bogomolnyi point separates superconductivity types I and II while itself hiding infinitely degenerate magnetic flux configurations, including very exotic states (referred to here as flux “monsters”). When the degeneracy is removed, the Bogomolnyi point unfolds into a finite, intertype domain in the phase diagram between types I and II. One can expect that in this case the flux monsters can escape their “prison” at the Bogomolnyi point, occupying the intertype domain and shaping its internal structure. Our calculations reveal that such exotic flux distributions are indeed stable in the intertype regime of thin superconductors made of a type-I material, where the Bogomolnyi degeneracy is removed by stray magnetic fields. They can be classified into three typical patterns that are qualitatively different from those in types I and II: superconducting islands separated by vortex chains; stripes/worms/labyrinths patterns; and mixtures of giant vortices and vortex clusters. Our findings shed light on the problem of the interchange between types I and II, raising important questions on the completeness of the textbook classification of the superconductivity types.

We study the low frequency admittance of a small metallic island coupled to a gate electrode and to a massive reservoir via a \emph{multi channel} tunnel junction. The ac current is caused by a slowly oscillating gate voltage. We focus on the regime of inelastic cotunneling in which the dissipation of energy (the real part of the admittance) is determined by two-electron tunneling with creation of electron-hole pairs on the island. We demonstrate that at finite temperatures but low frequencies the energy dissipation is ohmic whereas at zero temperature it is super-ohmic. We find that (i) the charge relaxation resistance (extracted from the real part of the admittance) is strongly temperature dependent, (ii) the imaginary and real parts of the admittance do not satisfy the Korringa-Shiba relation. At zero temperature the charge relaxation resistance vanishes in agreement with the recent zero temperature analysis [M. Filippone and C. Mora, Phys. Rev. B {\bf 86}, 125311 (2012) and P. Dutt, T. L. Schmidt, C. Mora, and K. Le Hur, Phys. Rev. B {\bf 87}, 155134 (2013)].

We consider a nonstationary array of conductors, connected by resistances that fluctuate with time. The charge transfer between a particular pair of conductors is supposed to be dominated by electrical breakdowns—the moments when the corresponding resistance is close to zero. An amount of charge, transferred during a particular breakdown, is controlled by the condition of minimum for the electrostatic energy of the system. We find the conductivity, relaxation rate, and fluctuations for such a system within the classical approximation, valid, if the typical transferred charge is large compared to e . We discuss possible realizations of the model for colloidal systems and arrays of polymer-linked grains.

The magnetoresistance (MR) ρ/ρ of the cage-glass compound HoxLu1−xB12 with various concentrations of magnetic holmium ions (x 0.5) has been studied in detail concurrently with magnetization M(T) and Hall effect investigations on high-quality single crystals at temperatures 1.9–120 K and in magnetic field up to 80 kOe. The undertaken analysis of ρ/ρ allows us to conclude that the large negative magnetoresistance (nMR) observed in the vicinity of the N´eel temperature is caused by scattering of charge carriers on magnetic clusters of Ho3+ ions, and that these nanosize regions with antiferromagnetic (AF) exchange inside may be considered as short-range-order AF domains. It was shown that the Yosida relation −ρ/ρ ∼ M2 provides an adequate description of the nMR effect for the case of Langevin-type behavior of magnetization. Moreover, a reduction of Ho-ion effective magnetic moments in the range 3–9 μB was found to develop both with temperature lowering and under the increase of holmium content. A phenomenological description of the large positive quadratic contribution ρ/ρ ∼ μ2 DH2 which dominates in HoxLu1−xB12 in the intermediate temperature range 20–120 K allows us to estimate the drift mobility exponential changes μD ∼ T −α with α = 1.3–1.6 depending on Ho concentration. An even more comprehensive behavior of magnetoresistance has been found in the AF state of HoxLu1−xB12 where an additional linear positive component was observed and attributed to charge-carrier scattering on the spin density wave (SDW). High-precision measurements of ρ/ρ = f (H,T ) have allowed us also to reconstruct the magnetic H-T phase diagram of Ho0.5Lu0.5B12 and to resolve its magnetic structure as a superposition of 4f (based on localized moments) and 5d (based on SDW) components.

We study tunneling of charge carriers in single- and bilayer graphene. We propose an explanation for nonzero “magic angles” with 100% transmission for the case of symmetric potential barrier, as well as for their almost-survival for slightly asymmetric barrier in the bilayer graphene known previously from numerical simulations. Most importantly, we demonstrate that these magic angles are *not* protected in the case of bilayer and give an explicit example of a barrier with very small electron transmission probability for *any* angles. This means that one can lock charge carriers by a *p-n-p* (or *n-p-n*) junction *without* opening energy gap. This creates new opportunities for the construction of graphene transistors.

We insert and manipulate a single chlorine atom in chlorine monolayer on a Si(100)-2 × 1 surface using a scanning tunneling microscope. Two objects were created—a Cl atom in a groove between two dimer rows, and bridge-bonded Cl on a silicon dimer. Changing the voltage polarity leads to conversion of the objects into each other. Anisotropic movement of the objects at 77 K is mediated by two different diffusion mechanisms: hopping and crowdion-like motion. Insertion of a Cl atom in a groove between two dimer rows leads to the formation of a dangling bond on a third-layer Si atom. At positive sample voltage bias, the first object is positively charged while the second object can be neutral or negatively charged depending on silicon sample doping.

We report comprehensive (magneto)transport studies of the two-phase state in (TMTSF)2ClO4, where superconducting (SC) phase coexists with spin-density wave insulator (SDW). By tuning the degree of ClO4 anion ordering in controlled manner we smoothly suppress the SDWstate and study resulting evolution of the SC phase spatial texture.We find that as SDWis suppressed, SC regions initially appear inside the SDWinsulator in a form of filaments extended in the interlayer direction and further merge into the two-dimensional sheets across the most conducting axis of the crystal. We demonstrate that almost all our results can be explained within the soliton phase model, though with several assumptions, they can also be related with the creation of nonuniform deformations.We believe that the anisotropy is intrinsic to SC/SDWcoexistence in various quasi-one-dimensional superconductors.

The recent experimental studies of extremely long-lived macroscopic ensembles of spin-cyclotron excitons (magnetoexcitons) which have to obey the Bose-Einstein statistics signal the emergence of an excitonic coherent phase. In the present paper the theory of a weakly interacting Bose gas of spin-cyclotron excitations is developed in terms of a virial correction to the single-magnetoexciton energy. The condition for coherent-incoherent phase transition is discussed. It is expected to be strongly related to the studied long-distance interexcitonic correlations. The results obtained theoretically are discussed in terms of their agreement with specific experimental data.