Features of the Damage and the Structural Changes in the Tungsten Surface Layer under the Pulsed Action of Laser Radiation, Ion and Plasma Fluxes
The degradation of a bilateral pressed tungsten surface layer by pulsed laser irradiation in the freerunning
mode (power density q = 105–5 × 106 W/cm2, pulse duration τ = 0.7 ms) and the Q-switched mode
(q = 109–1010 W/cm2, τ = 80 ns) as well as under plasma beam irradiation in a plasma focus (PF) device (q =
108–1012 W/cm2, τ = 10–100 ns) has been investigated. The features of the degradation, erosion, and structural
changes in the tungsten surface layer under different irradiation conditions have been determined. It has
been shown that the use of PF devices in combination with laser equipment is promising for the simulation
of the extreme radiation–thermal effects in materials that are typical of thermonuclear fusion devices with
magnetic and inertial plasma confinement.
The work carried out research on the use of pulsed high-temperature plasma for the preparation of compounds of immiscible materials. The technique of irradiation on materials installation type Plasma Focus.
Elements of functional safety of electronic systems which depends on electromagnetic compatibility are considered. Classification of dangers, risks, a damage is given. Recommendations on design of electronic systems which are meeting the requirements of functional safety are given.
The stability of the electrophysical properties of tungsten-based compositions is studied in a temperature range of 1300–1700 K. After high-temperature activation, tungsten–oxide compositions can have an electrical resistivity that is stable in time, which provides a basis for the fabrication of durable directly heated hot cathodes and heaters based on them.
The method of Rutherford backscattering of He + ions 2 MeV studied profiles of C, Cu and W in the films deposited on the PF-4 LPI. The films were deposited on glass substrates in gases Ar, D2. It is found that the profiles of the elements is significantly dependent on the kinetic energy of the particles and their sizes. At particle velocities ~ 100 km / s, the particles penetrate to a depth of ~ 500 nm. Profiles are inhomogeneous in nature. For each impurity, there are certain depth beneath the surface layers of the glass. A special feature is the location of the films produced impurity layers below the surface of the glass substrate and overlapping. This arrangement sputtered layers is significantly different from the traditionally used methods of film deposition.
The article provides a comparative legal of the nature of social danger with other criminal law and civil phenomena. It proves that social danger is correlated with law and pertains exclusively to criminal law. The author suggests that harm should be distinguished from social danger which has institutional rather than predicate importance from criminal law.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.