Conservation, evolution, and regulation of splicing during prefrontal cortex development in humans, chimpanzees and macaques
Changes in splicing are known to affect the function and regulation of genes. We analyzed splicing events that take place during the postnatal development of the prefrontal cortex in humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques based on data obtained from 168 individuals. Our study revealed that among the 38,822 quantified alternative exons, 15% are differentially spliced among species, and more than 6% splice differently at different age. Mutations in splicing acceptor and/or donor sites might explain more than 14% of all splicing differences among species and up to 64% of high-amplitude differences. A reconstructed trans- regulatory network containing 21 RNA-binding proteins explain a further 4% of splicing variations within species. While most age-dependent splicing patterns are conserved among the three species, developmental changes in intron retention are substantially more pronounced in humans.
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Linguistic processing is based on a close collaboration between temporal and frontal regions connected by two pathways: the “dorsal” and “ventral pathways” (assumed to support phonological and semantic processing, respectively, in adults). We investigated here the development of these pathways at the onset of language acquisition, during the first post-natal weeks, using cross-sectional diffusion imaging in 21 healthy infants (6–22 weeks of age) and 17 young adults. We compared the bundle organization and microstructure at these two ages using tractography and original clustering analyses of diffusion tensor imaging parameters. We observed structural similarities between both groups, especially concerning the dorsal/ventral pathway segregation and the arcuate fasciculus asymmetry. We further highlighted the developmental tempos of the linguistic bundles: The ventral pathway maturation was more advanced than the dorsal pathway maturation, but the latter catches up during the first post-natal months. Its fast development during this period might relate to the learning of speech cross-modal representations and to the first combinatorial analyses of the speech input.
Studying how the healthy human brain develops is important to understand early pathological mechanisms and to assess the influence of fetal or perinatal events on later life. Brain development relies on complex and intermingled mechanisms especially during gestation and first post-natal months, with intense interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Although the baby's brain is organized early on, it is not a miniature adult brain: regional brain changes are asynchronous and protracted, i.e. sensory-motor regions develop early and quickly, whereas associative regions develop later and slowly over decades. Concurrently, the infant/child gradually achieves new performances, but how brain maturation relates to changes in behavior is poorly understood, requiring non-invasive in vivo imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two main processes of early white matter development are reviewed: (1) establishment of connections between brain regions within functional networks, leading to adult-like organization during the last trimester of gestation, (2) maturation (myelination) of these connections during infancy to provide efficient transfers of information. Current knowledge from post-mortem descriptions and in vivo MRI studies is summed up, focusing on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and quantitative mapping of T1/T2 relaxation times, myelin water fraction and magnetization transfer ratio.
Obtaining RNA-seq measurements involves a complex data analytical process with a large number of competing algorithms as options. There is much debate about which of these methods provides the best approach. Unfortunately, it is currently difficult to evaluate their performance due in part to a lack of sensitive assessment metrics. We present a series of statistical summaries and plots to evaluate the performance in terms of specificity and sensitivity, available as a R/Bioconductor package ( http://bioconductor.org/packages/rnaseqcomp ). Using two independent datasets, we assessed seven competing pipelines. Performance was generally poor, with two methods clearly underperforming and RSEM slightly outperforming the rest.
The paper analyses migration balance in urban districts and municipal areas of Russia in 2012-2014 from the perspective of migration balance impact on concentration and deconcentration of the population. We evaluate the general distribution of the municipal unities of this level across the country taking into account the population density characteristics and current ratio of sparsely and densely populated territories. The results of the analysis demonstrate that in nowadays Russia the concentration of the population is intensifying, thus contributing to the growing gap between densely populated cities and deserted territories of poorly inhabited zone. In contrast to many European countries as well as to the USA, where the processes of concentration and deconcentration of population have been replacing each other during the last several decades, Russia keeps the population concentration trend unchanged. The paper looks at two migration flows: 1) from intra-regional periphery to the center – the outflow intensifies as the distance from the center grows; 2) from municipal units with low population density to densely populated territories, primarily to big cities. We also evaluate the role of certain types of migration (intra-regional, interregional and international) in the process of concentration and deconcentration of the population.