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Article

Conservation, evolution, and regulation of splicing during prefrontal cortex development in humans, chimpanzees and macaques

RNA. 2018. P. 585-596.
Mazin P., Jiang X., Fu N., Han D., Guo M., Gelfand M. S., Khaitovich P.

Changes in splicing are known to affect the function and regulation of genes. We analyzed splicing events that take place during the postnatal development of the prefrontal cortex in humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques based on data obtained from 168 individuals. Our study revealed that among the 38,822 quantified alternative exons, 15% are differentially spliced among species, and more than 6% splice differently at different age. Mutations in splicing acceptor and/or donor sites might explain more than 14% of all splicing differences among species and up to 64% of high-amplitude differences. A reconstructed trans- regulatory network containing 21 RNA-binding proteins explain a further 4% of splicing variations within species. While most age-dependent splicing patterns are conserved among the three species, developmental changes in intron retention are substantially more pronounced in humans.