Возможные подходы к определению правового режима пользовательского контента
A lot of Internet content is user content – the information provided by users which can be author’s content, derivative content or copied content. This makes the authors – A. Ermakova (Ph. D. in Law), assistant professor, EMBA, Russian Federation patent attorney, director for legal issues at Russia’s Higher School of Economics, and A. Sukhareva, student at Russian Private Law School, legal advisor at the Higher School of Economics – raise the question on defining the legitimacy of creation and placement of user content as well is legal use by third parties.
This paper presents methodological discussion of the analysis of stereotypical traits in the depiction of the characters in literary fiction using Soviet children’s literature as a sample. The discussion is supported by a pilot study of gender stereotyping that adds to the existing literature an extensive discussion of gendered portrayal of children. We propose to treat stereotypical features in characters not as a simple reflection of social norms, but as an element of literary diction. We label as “template poetics” the analysis of these phenomena in fiction. Current study is based on the corpus of Soviet realistic prose for children and youth of 1930s — 1980s. Basing on a random sample of character body parts mentions in the corpus (N=2486), we were able to trace the quantitative differences in the rates of mentions of various body parts due to the character’s gender and to discover a few characterization patterns that include reference to the character’s body parts.
With the spread of social media, ethnic prejudice is becoming publicly available to widening audiences and may have serious offline consequences. This creates demand to detect prejudice and other signs of ethnic tension in user- generated texts, and this task is absolutely different from measuring prejudice with surveys – an approach traditionally developed in psychology. In this work we use a hand coding instrument based on psychological definitions of prejudice and sociological methods of questionnaire construction. Compared to our previous research, we double our hand-coded collection that reaches 14,998 unique user texts retrieved from the Russian language social media. We then train computer classification algorithms to “guess” prejudice as detected by human coders and show significant improvement in quality compared to our earlier results. Still, as not all aspects of prejudice get detected sufficiently well, we analyze potential causes of low quality and outline directions for further improvement.
The theoretical framework of the article is “documentary modernism” which as a literary phenomenon appeared in the English prose of the 1930s and as a notion is being conceptualized in contemporary criticism. This concept serves as a pivotal point of investigation of a novel by Henry Green, a late modernist who remains virtually unknown for the Russian scholars of literature. Written in the context of increasing interest in journalism, “Caught” is analyzed in the process of its narrative transgression of memoir and autobiography forms as well as the loss of determinacy between its narrative subjects. This may be an evidence of the postmodernist trend gradually emerging in the English novel. «Caught»’s transgression of documentalism is investigated from the outside (Green’s own autobiography, influence of Proust’s memoirs) as well as from the inside of fictitious reality (relations between the author, the narrator, the character and the reader).
Globalization has incited millions of people to set themselves apart through language, culture and traditions, resulting in one more challenge for corporations in search of coordinating operations all over the world. The similarity of the audience base in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan gives an excellent opportunity for analyzing advertising tools, trends and future development. Product marketing is closely connected to the marketing of values, which can be defined as the means and ways of using ethno-cultural components for creating, distributing and promoting products. The marketing of values entails the development of certain concepts and conceptual fields as well as images in the minds of potential consumers and their subsequent actualization. This, in turn, leads to the formation of behavioral patterns required to create a demand for the advertised product. Marketing is less interested in the origins of a product than in how it expresses local tastes and traditions – something that is not necessarily linked to the origins of the product itself. While target audiences have no difficulty in appreciating foreign goods, this is made easier by traditions expressed through socio-cultural components represented in modern ways. The use of signs, images and symbols relevant to the ethnic or social culture of the target audience increases the advertisement’s impact and the overall brand enhancement. Actualizing meaningful images and concepts latent in the minds of consumers is easier and less expensive than formulating new concepts or localizing foreign developments. While commercial advertising offers a certain lifestyle as a product, PSA may be called a tool for developing such a lifestyle within a given ethno-cultural paradigm. Our study of ethnic and socio-cultural components of present-day TV advertising in Taiwan, Hong Kong and mainland China attempts to interpret contemporary advertising and its impact on the perceptive and behavioral aspects of target audiences on three similar yet different markets.
The article analyzes the apprehension of Handel’s musical heritage by the Western European and American literary criticism. Despite the multifaceted study of Handel’s works, the author unravels an unexplored area—tragic oratorios. The unraveling was conditioned by the moral stance of Handel, formed by his ethical attitude to reality. In the embodiment of his oratorios’ concepts, he reached the level of comprehending music as a reflection of spiritual and emotional life (an idea which consolidated only at the end of the 18th century); and in his individual understanding of the personality’s image, he created a special kind of vocal-instrumental choral genre, majestic, exalted by the concept of faith, unprecedented in value and scale—a tragic oratorio. It turned out to be a kind of meta-genre, which absorbed the previous ample artistic experience and had the potential to pass its messages to humanity in the future, extrapolating its energy to other genres. Taking the moral and religious values, which dominated over earthly passions, as a model, Handel, apparently, set the task of cultivating his listeners and thereby “ideafied” his oratorical works. The paradox, however, was in the fact that by crystallizing the characters’ desire to make the most graceful moral choice, the composer showed them tragic hopelessness. By doing so, he proved to be a philosopher-artist, whose worldview was largely determined by conflicting dualism: the lofty Christian ethics and Western European secular morality. Having created a gallery of tragedy heroes, Handel showed their moral basis as not monolithic, but fundamentally disharmonious: their inner spiritual worlds were split by irreconcilable contradictions, existing both within and in the relation with the outside world. The protagonists, illuminated by transcendental light (Christ, Theodora, Jephthah), strived for spiritual perfection while suffering severely on their ways to its achievement. With such tragic characters, the composer brought the baroque ethical and aesthetic system to its highest limits—to the boundaries of the classical art of the Enlightenment and even beyond.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/