Материнское отношение к ребёнку раннего возраста среди осуждённых женщин в местах лишения свободы
The article presents the results of a study aimed at identifying the types of maternal attitude to their child of an early age among imprisoned women in a penitentiary. The study was done in Spring 2017 in a prison in Nizhny Novgorod region. The key method of data collection was a biographical interview that allowed to draw a clear boundary between the effects of the biographical experience of the convicted woman and the influence of the conditions prevailing in the penitentiary system on her maternal attitude toward the child. The article suggests a typology of the mother's attitude to the child: "Involved", "Worrying", "Passive" and "Visiting" type, and also describes factors that contribute to the formation of each of them.
In particular, it was found that the biographical factors (relationships in the parents' family, relations with the partner, criminal experience, etc.) are frequently decreased by the prison environment, as it is a rigid system of restrictions and regulation of all procedures concerning maternity.
On the one hand, these conditions reduce the probability of occurrence of deviant motherhood among the imprisoned women, but at the same time denies space for the development of emotional and psychological contact in the dyad mother-child. This increases the probability of maternal alienation, and contributes to a further refusal to perform maternal functions.
The study also indicated that the lack of a methodological basis for supporting maternity leads to the situation when a woman is unable to care for her child because of a lack of necessary knowledge and skills. The only agent of socialization and education of motherhood in the penitentiary is the micro community of convicted mothers living together who construct and reproduce their own model of "good", socially approved motherhood.