The category of alienation in educational psychology
This paper discusses the explanatory possibilities and limitations of the concept of alienation within the framework of educational psychology studies. Research into various phenomena associated with alienation (frustration and burnout, extrinsic motivation, cynicism, etc.) is often limited by the ontological realm of the individual, whereas the concept of alienation refers to a whole range of processes characteristic of both individual and sociocultural levels. The study outlines the heuristic potential that the cultural-historical activity approach to meaning and meaning regulation has in the analysis of alienation phenomena. The author reviews findings of empirical studies of alienation in education, as well as the theoretical groundwork dealing with the triggers of alienation and ways to cope with it. The discussion reveals that as human knowledge expands and becomes more complex and multifaceted on an ongoing basis, this causes various manifestations of alienation to grow in their frequency and intensity across educational environments. However, what could potentially help overcome specific psychological instances of alienation is the individual’s conscious and more socially aligned self-identification that can be achieved through meaningful reflection on the contributory part they play in the broadest context of collective activity and societal progress as a whole. Although too abstract and heterogeneous for specific psychological studies to be based upon, the concept of alienation may be of great utility in interpreting psychological findings and integrating them into the interdisciplinary context, in order to more thoughtfully revisit and improve the existing institutional configurations and instructional practices.
The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the relation between the concepts of loss of meaning (V. Frankl) and alienation (K. Marx, E. Fromm) that are related to similar phenomena. A theory of alienation as an existential neurosis (S. Maddi) is reviewed and seen as a link between these two traditions. Based on the multidimensional view of the ontology of meaning as a psychological and a sociocultural unit, the authors present a view of experiences of meaningfulness and meaning loss as emergent phenomena of the overall system of relationships with the world that are actively pursued by an individual (this view is based on theories of A.N. Leontiev, S. Maddi, J. Nakamura, M. Csikszentmihalyi). In this view, alienation is seen as a category that describes ontological basis of meaninglessness, which is a subjective phenomenon.
In the article one of the major aspects of ontology of Paul Tillich (1886- 1965), an outstanding German-American philosopher and theologian, the founder of current neo-liberal theology, philosopher of culture, - the problem of existence as an alienation is analyzed. The concept of alienation, which is dominant in the world, is described by the majority of trends of modern philosophy and Christian anthropology to both of which Tillich belonged. The majority of religious thinkers of XX century (not only Christian thinkers) have apprehended philosophical concept of alienation as a correlate of theological concepts of God-abandonness, creatureness and sinfulness.
The book is devoted to consideration in a popular form of evolution of one of the most debatable creations of the Western European metaphysics – the ontological evidence for God's existence or ontological argument. The idea of classical and non-classical arguments has allowed the author to analyses argument development as process of formation of the reflexive methodology, which is adequate for knowledge of the systems including free activity of the person. These are the problems constantly facing modern social sciences; therefore, despite the historical and philosophical direction of the book, the problems that are relevant to modern social and human sciences are under continued discussion. The book is primarily addressed to specialists in the field history of philosophy and methodology of social knowledge, philosophy and sociology of religion, and also to all who are interested in fundamental questions of classical metaphysics.
The author in this manuscript tries to show that the latent intellectual and spiritual basis of some schools of Western philosophy was Christianity, and Western philosophy is often correlated to it in one way or another (sometimes paradoxically) - be it religious, atheistic or non-theistic. That is true for Jean-Paul Sartre's metaphysics. The concepts of subjectivity and personality are inseparably connected with the Western culture and philosophy, which were (among other) intrinsically generated by the intentions of religions of the "Bible root" - Christianity, in this case. As the "core" of existential philosophy in general are the problems of personality ("being-to-death", "the border situation", human freedom, moral choice, guiltiness, responsibility, alienation etc.) - so, its ideas are at the uttermost correlated to Christian anthropology. Nevertheless parallels of Sartre's texts with Christian mystical and ascetic practices ewre not clearly demonstrated in any research yet. The author also demonstrates that contrary to his heralded "atheism" Sartre's existentialism latently implies the ontological "melancholy for God" and that the "absence of God" was the cardinal principle for the composition of the whole Sartre's metaphysics and his concepts of being, subjectivity and consciousness.
The project addresses anomie and alienation theories as a means of studying the state of contemporary societies. The two theories appeared and developed separately, but with the institutionalization of psychological anomie (anomia) as well as with the extension of the notion of alienation the two theories became not only close to each other but also mixed with each other. Still, there hasn’t been enough theoretical contribution to the separation of the two concepts (Shoham 1982, Olsen 1965), and none on the separation within the alienation theory and the psychological anomie, which is claimed to be crucial for both theoretical and empirical works. The project offers a model of conceptualization of the concepts and applies it using ESS 2010.
The book is devoted to consideration in a popular form of evolution of one of the most debatable creations of the Western European metaphysics - the ontological argument better known as the ontological argument of evidence for God's existence. The ontological argument is a logical nonsense for classical the subject - object relation; it becomes the natural phenomenon in the reflexive systems including cognitive activity of the subject as an element of the functioning and existence. The concept of classical and non-classical arguments has allowed the author to analyze argument development as process of formation of the reflexive methodology in the course of the Western philosophy development. From the standpoint of the received results, the methodological problems of economic science related to the alienation and also the reflexive paradoxes encountered within sociology of knowledge are analyzed in the last part of the book. The book is primarily addressed to specialists in the field history of philosophy and methodology of social knowledge, philosophy and sociology of religion, and also to all who are interested in fundamental questions of classical metaphysics.
В книге в популярной форме рассмотрена эволюция одного из наиболее и дискуссионных созданий западноевропейской метафизики – онтологического доказательства бытия Бога или онтологического аргумента. Введение представления о классической и неклассической формах аргумента позволило автору проанализировать его развитие как процесс становления рефлексивной методологии, адекватной для познания систем, включающих в себя свободную деятельность человека. С подобными задачами постоянно сталкиваются современные социальные науки, поэтому, несмотря на историко-философскую направленность книги, в ней постоянно обсуждаются проблемы, актуальные для современных наук об обществе и человеке. В первую очередь, книга адресована специалистам в области истории философии и методологии социального познания, философии и социологии религии, а также всем, кто интересуется фундаментальными вопросами классической метафизики.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.