Аристотелевский миф о пещере
The article examines the origin of the philosophical myth of the cave cited in Cicero’s dialogue De natura deorum (2.95–96) and attempts to interpret this text. Cicero argues that the author of the myth is Aristotle, but does not mention the title of the work containing it. It is generally believed that the myth of the cave was articulated in Aristotle’s lost dialogue Περὶ φιλοσοφίας, but the absence of any hints at the image of the cave, both in Aristotle’s own surviving texts and in those of his commentators, raises questions about the appropriate attribution of this fragment. Regardless of the way that these issues are to be resolved, the very content of the fragment deserves attention, since it reflects in nuce the Platonic and Aristotelian doctrine of knowledge, world and divinity refracted through the optics of Cicero’s eclecticism. This article attempts to show 1) that there are a number of correspondences (semantic and factual) between some texts of Corpus Aristotelicum and this fragment, which allow us to accept the hypothesis of the Aristotelian “cave myth” as plausible, 2) that a number of details in the Aristotelian myth deliberately follow in the footsteps of the Platonic myth of the cave — which serves a polemical purpose, which, in turn, supports 3) that the Aristotelian myth is a reflection of his teachings during the Academia period.