Миграция пожилых в России (по данным переписи населения 2010 г.)
The article analyzes the regional characteristics of migration of the elderly in Russia. Using the data, composed on the basis of the National Population Census of 2010, we allocate the share of people aged 60 and older in the structure of the inter-regional and intra-regional migration flows and describe the intensity of this type of migration. The results of the analysis demonstrate that intensity of the migration of the elderly differs across the regions. The highest migration intensity is observed in the Far East and northern territories. Retirement migration from these regions happens before people reach the legally defined retirement age for men and women in Russia. In fact, migration of the elderly from the northern regions is the resettlement of the ‘young-elderly’. Low migration intensity of the elderly is characteristic for most of the republics and autonomous okrugs. In the paper, we also define major centers of in-migration and out-migration of the elderly within the Russian Federation, as well as outline general characteristics of the migration of the elderly in Russia.
We analyzed key factors of electric power consumption for Moscow and regional households. It is shown that new build, intraregional migration, recreational housing and, finally, income drive household power consumption significantly. Average yearly temperature is not among accountable power consumption drivers for households. A power consumption model for households is suggested.
This paper analyzes regional features of migration of the elderly population in Russia. Data compiled from the 2010 All-Russia Population Census have revealed the share of people aged 60 years and older in the structure of interregional and intraregional migration flows and the intensity of this type of migration. Assessment of the migration intensity of the elderly in Russia demonstrates significant regional differentiation. Compared to Russia as a whole, the Far East and northern territories are distinguished by a high level of elderly migration intensity. At the same time, the beginning of “retirement” departures from these regions usually occurs earlier than is set by the retirement age limit for men and women in Russia. And in general, migration of the elderly from northern regions involves the relocation of the “young elderly.” The overwhelming majority of republics and autonomous entities are among the regions with a low intensity of migration of the elderly. This paper also identifies the main centers of attraction and outflow of elderly migrants within the Russian Federation and general features of elderly migration in Russia.
An analisys of various characteristics of Russian population's demographic structure is given in this article. We use Census 2010 data. The key feature of the presented research is in the chosen subregional level of administrative division. The scale allows us to catch the intraregional differences in demographic structure. Cartographic approach with elements of visual analisys is used in the research. Subregional differences in the demographic srtucture of post-transition population reveal the result of intensive internal migration. Migration deepens the demographic crisis of regional periphery.
The study considers the relationship between internal migration and fertility in Russia. Authors use a sample of 28.2 million women born in 1950-1979 withdrawn from the Russian population Census-2010 database. The data shows that women who have continuously lived in their birthplace since birth have on average lower fertility compared to those who have a migration experience. The authors attribute this to the fact that in Russia internal migrants usually aim to escape from economically depressed areas, and positive effects of these changes overcome negative effects coming from the disruption of their childbearing careers. At that moves within the region have stronger positive impact on fertility than interregional ones, which confirms that migration and fertility are still competing life events. One major exception are migrants heading to the capital cities. Due to the need to adapt to the high competition in every sphere of economic life on the one hand and to the very low fertility norms in the destination region on the other hand they demonstrate lower eventual fertility than their non-migrant compatriots. Spatial analysis of fertility differences between migrant and non-migrant women revealed that regions that loose in fertility due to internal migration are few and they are clustered around the Caucasus Mountains and near the Altai. These are regions just entering the second demographic transition characterized by high fertility together with relatively low average age for motherhood. Overall, authors conclude that Russia benefits from internal migration in terms of eventual fertility.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.