The level of topological complexity of land transport networks (including roads, railways and winter seasonal roads) of 27 regions of Siberia and the Far East is analyzed on the basis of 16 topomorphometric parameters. The main types of topological defects in the structure of regional land transport networks were identified: spatial isolation (rupture), an increased level of branching, the presence of several cyclic cores and isolated cyclic elements, and multi-core topological tiers of cyclic cores. The highest degree of isolation is revealed in the transport networks of Kamchatka Territory, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Khabarovsk Territory and Tomsk Oblast. Transport networks of the Republic of Altai, the Kamchatka Territory, the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, the Republics of Tuva and Buryatia, the Jewish Autonomous Okrug and of the Island of Sakhalin, as well as the main cyclic skeleton of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug’s winter seasonal roads have the highest level of branching. Multilayeredness is characteristic of the transport network of the Khanty-Mansiysk and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Districts, the Kemerovo Oblast, the Khabarovsk Territory and Buryatia. The multifocal nature of the second topological tier of the cyclic skeleton is a distinctive feature of land transport networks in the south of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Irkutsk Oblast, the Republic of Yakutia, Kemerovo and Novosibirsk Oblasts. The same feature is characteristic for the third topological tier of the communications’ network in the Altai Territory. According to the level of spatial reliability (vulnerability) of the topological structure, the following types of regional transport networks are distinguished: the most reliable (4 regions), highly reliable (8), medium reliable (5), highly vulnerable with a low level of spatial reliability (5), the most vulnerable with a minimum level of spatial reliability (5 regions).
Migration is an age-specific process. Various types of migration in Russia including long-term, temporary and commuter migration, each have specific age structure. This paper analyses age composition of mobile and non-mobile population of Russia using administrative data on migration, 2010 Census data and Sample Survey on Employment data for 2012-2014. The author investigates relationship between age composition of labour migration and migration destinations. The results of the analysis of the interregional migration in Russia indicate that labour migrants of older ages tend to choose destinations in the North and East of Russia, while migration to Moscow and Saint Petersburg has younger age composition. These differences can be explained by specific economic structure and labour market structure of the destination regions, as well as with existing demand for workers with specific qualifications in some regions.
In this article the author examines the environmental effects of post-industrialization. The author analyzes the mutuality ecologization and trans-formation of the territorial structure of the world economy. And he gives special attention to the prospects of forming ecolobby in Russia. In conclusion, he speaks about the impact of post-industrial stage of economic development on the global environmental situation.
The dynamics of urbosistemy Russia for 1989-2010 years is analyzed in the article. With the at¬traction of the All-Russian census data of 1989, 2002 and 2010., as well as current population studied popula¬tion change Russian cities, depending on their size and position in the settlement system, the dynamics of the natural and migration growth of cities.
The article analyses the differences in demographic dynamics for settlements and areas of different types viewed from the perspective of the center-periphery conception. The author veries the hypothesis that in modern conditions the concentration of the population increases in regional centers and adjacent areas, the regional dynamics of the population in certain administrative and territory units is as strong as the interregional one. The periphery territories of different regions have fewer differences compared with regional centers. This factor forms the interregional socioeconomic differentiation. The article also provides the dynamics of the
population in cities, towns and rural areas depending on their remoteness from the regional center.
Rapid quantitative increase and qualitative change of the U.S. trade relations with China led to the formation of complimentary economical system and to the conjugated development of two countries. This paper examines the substitution effect of U.S. industrial production by import from China. The typology of the U.S. industry branches based on the indexes of the substitution effect is carried out and the substitution factors are examined. Industrial development of China is the important prerequisite of the U.S. post-industrial development and structural optimization of the economy and industry.
The article reviews factors and key trends of the population and economic development concentration in the capitals of 11 ex-Soviet states. Contradictory trends of the population concentration during the crisis period of 1990-th and since 2000-th are shown. The levels of economic concentration in the capitals as well as industrial output and investment concentration are extremely different and supplemented by the diversity of trends due to the infl of many factors. The higher level of housing construction and retail concentration is revealed for almost all capitals. Population money incomes inequality between the capitals and the whole country differs essentially and seems to be a signifi factor of labor migration to the capital or abroad.
The article reviews key trends in the development of cities in ex-Soviet states. It discusses demographic and socio-economic preconditions for the development of cities, changes in urban governance and spatial planning systems, the state of housing. It also highlights factors conditioning the uneven development of post-Soviet cities.
Spatial reorganization and changing the definition of the place of usual residence for some types of ”institutional population” have a great impact on rural and urban population dynamics in Russia, especially in Moscow region. The paper attempts to quantify the contribution of these non-demographic factors in the evaluation of the total population and population dynamics in the last intercensal period, identify plausible population dynamics in the region.
Russian and foreign studies have established that people with a migration experience easier change their place of residence again, compared with those who never did not. The migrants divided into two main groups - new settlers and old residents, who have lived in the site of invasion for a long time and an intermediate group from newcomers to old-timers. The regions where the settlers adapt best are Moscow, St. Petersburg. In most regions of the Far East and Siberia (except Khanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs) large number of migrants compensated by the large number of who left.
In this paper one analyzed the intensity and age characteristics of migration in recent years, using the data at the level of municipalities and municipal districts of Moscow and Moscow region. Particular concern is paid to the migration from Moscow to the Moscow region. Calculations show that Moscow region, located in the zone closest to the Ring of cities and regions, feel the most intense influx of migrants. At the same time there were not discovered distinct age characteristics of migration in the areas that were near and far from the Moscow region.
The article analyzes the regional characteristics of migration of the elderly in Russia. Using the data, composed on the basis of the National Population Census of 2010, we allocate the share of people aged 60 and older in the structure of the inter-regional and intra-regional migration flows and describe the intensity of this type of migration. The results of the analysis demonstrate that intensity of the migration of the elderly differs across the regions. The highest migration intensity is observed in the Far East and northern territories. Retirement migration from these regions happens before people reach the legally defined retirement age for men and women in Russia. In fact, migration of the elderly from the northern regions is the resettlement of the ‘young-elderly’. Low migration intensity of the elderly is characteristic for most of the republics and autonomous okrugs. In the paper, we also define major centers of in-migration and out-migration of the elderly within the Russian Federation, as well as outline general characteristics of the migration of the elderly in Russia.
The interaction between the «new» and «classical» economic geography remains weak due to methodological differences. For the classical economic geography, it is important to make greater use of mathematical models and their empirical testing. NEG models need to incorporate space as an endogenous factor, to specify models for different scales and stages of development, taking into account geographical position of regions. To develop such models requires the cooperation of economists and geographers.