Sustainable Development of Regional Power Systems and the Consumption of Electric Energy
Nowadays, one of the most imminent problems facing power systems in post-industrial countries is the sustainable development of power systems under conditions of increasing power consumption irregularity due to the reduction of the industry’s share in consumers’ demand for electric power. In today’s Russia, this issue is becoming very acute due to the significant share of electric power and heat co-generation that is demonstrating low manoeuvrability and poor adaptation to operations in the daily variation of electric power demand. This paper considers the problem of improving the power system steady-state through the optimization of the production structure of thermal power plants. We propose a combinatorial algorithm that improves the planning of the structural and technological modernization of the power equipment configuration, with a glance at the forecast of the increasing irregularity of power consumption.
This paper presents the problem of interdependence and interconditionality of the concepts "sustainable tourism" and "sustainable development of tourism". The relevance of the topic chosen is associated with the problem of sustainability of tourism development in the conditions of global instability as the modern tourism is a rapidly developing social and cultural phenomenon which dynamics is based on a system of human interaction with the world. Being in the center of the research field, tourism is related to the modern global processes and is hardly exposed to their influence that is reflected in the change of its qualitative and quantitative characteristics. The tourism being one of the steadily developing branches of the world economy is the industry almost in all countries that has valuable potential opportunities in terms of creating a different kind of economic interests, and attracts more and more attention. The potential opportunities of tourism include: improving balance of payments, access to new investment resources, the increase in state revenues, creation of new jobs, development of public utilities, and others. The paper provides an overview of the literature on the issue of sustainable development of tourism. We give the principles and indicators for sustainable tourism development. The carried out analysis allowed us to determine some of the basic principles of sustainable tourism development taking into account the conceptual arguments in favor of development, sustainable development, and sustainable tourism development.
Application of the software for modelling of decoupling condensers in power system circuits of microcircuits is considered. Recommendations about a rational choice of condensers are given.
Drawing on the results of two representative surveys (2014 and 2017) this paper presents data on the actual and the potential levels of Russians’ engagement in separate waste collection practices, the factors and the conditions for this. To date, only 4–5% of municipal waste is recycled, while most of the waste ends up in dumps, official or otherwise. Multiple attempts to introduce a system of separate waste collection in Soviet and post-Soviet times in various regions and population centers (waste paper collection in schools, separate containers for food waste and other garbage, stationary and mobile separated solid waste collection points, etc.) did not succeed. The population is often claimed to be the weak link in the social mechanism of this practice institutionalization. However, is this really the case? We apply a multinomial logit regression to evaluate the relative strength of different factors potentially explaining the division of individuals into separate groups defined by their attitudes to separate waste disposal. The results of the analysis show that although the potential of the enthusiastic pioneers has been virtually exhausted, the claims that the majority of Russians are not yet prepared to participate in these practices are not true. However, the potential participants tend to voice more complex demands with regard to the conditions enabling their participation in separate waste collection. The convenience factor (the proximity of garbage containers to people’s homes, adequate time for delivering particular types of waste to the collection points), which has been identified in the studies of evolving practices of separate waste collection, both in developed and developing countries, is also a key factor in Russia. The confidence in the effectiveness of personal efforts to alleviate the issue is also important: people believe that their endeavors are not in vain, the waste collected separately will be withdrawn in a timely and efficient manner, recycled, etc. Interestingly, cultural norms, social incentives and sanctions do not seem to play any significant role in this regard, nor do any material incentives or sanctions. We show that the practice of separate waste collection is mostly driven by prosocial motives, environmental concerns and responsibility. It is barely influenced by self-serving interests and, thus, falls within the realm of civil society practices. It can become another (accessible and straightforward) channel for exercising civic responsibility and independence. In conclusion, we discuss the future potential of the practices in question and measures to enhance Russians’ participation in separate waste collection.
Importance and Methods Article is devoted to revealing the author's approach and methodological tools to measure sustainable development of industrial enterprises. Proposed combination of static and dynamic approach significantly expands the possibilities of methodical evaluation, allowing more deep justification of the pattern of management solutions on sustainable development of industrial enterprise.
Results The article presents the results of testing the author's methodological tools on the example of three industrial enterprises of Perm. The authors calculated the individual indicators of sustainable development at the economic, environmental and social spheres, and then defined their static reference values, and then, in dynamics, calculated the rate of change and built dynamic standards with their use. Then the calculation was made on group static and dynamic indicators for each area and integrated static and dynamic indices. Combining static and dynamic evaluations allowed displaying the pattern of each company’s position in the matrix of complex evaluation of the level of sustainable development of industrial enterprise.
Conclusions The research has shown that the positions of the analyzed companies are concentrated in the quadrant of the matrix, which is characterized by a balanced tempo characteristics in dynamics, it also revealed discrepancies between the actual values of indicators and their normative (or recommended) values in static. To overcome the situation, management decisions need to be made to improve the indicator values, to bring them to the normative level, while maintaining balanced tempo characteristics of the indicators over time. Each of the investigated companies has been proposed a number of practical recommendations, briefly reflected in the present article.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
The Working Paper examines the peculiarities of the Russian model of corporate governance and control in the banking sector. The study relies upon theoretical as well as applied research of corporate governance in Russian commercial banks featuring different forms of ownership. We focus on real interests of all stakeholders, namely bank and stock market regulators, bank owners, investors, top managers and other insiders. The Anglo-American concept of corporate governance, based on agency theory and implying outside investors’ control over banks through stock market, is found to bear limited relevance. We suggest some ways of overcoming the gap between formal institutions of governance and the real life.