Адаптация и модификация методики аккультурационных ожиданий Джона Берри
The paper is devoted to the description of the process of adaptation and modification on the Russian sample Berry’s questionnaire of acculturation expectations. Acculturation expectations are the host population’s (or representatives of dominant ethnic groups) attitudes towards the migrants or members of ethnic minorities. In his own theory of acculturation, John Berry described four acculturation expectations of the host population: “integration” (previously known as “multiculturalism”), “assimilation” (or “the melting pot”), “segregation”, “exclusion”. In addition, Berry developed questionnaire of personal preferences of acculturation attitudes. In our study, we adapted this questionnaire on the Russian sample. In the process of adaptation, we have made some modifications in the questionnaire, increasing twice the number of items, this helps us increase reliability and consistency of the Russian version of this questionnaire. Then we conducted the socio-psychological survey on a sample of the indigenous Russian population of Moscow (total sample size of 198 respondents, including 59 men and 139 women, the average age of respondents 24 years). According to the obtained results, the adapted and modified questionnaire of acculturation expectations can be considered a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the acculturation expectations of host population/ dominant society in the Russian Federation.
In March 2011 scholars met in Prague at the conference Interculturalism, Meaning and Identity. This event revitalised this important theme related to Diversity and Recognition. The terms 'interculturalism' and 'integration' are experiencing a renaissance. As the extent of human movement between nations increases attempts are made to balance cultural difference and social cohesion. In some contexts immigration and settlement policies are becoming more draconian in response. Because of this, interculturalism can take on many meanings. However, pivotal to the way interculturalism is understood is identification. As the relationship between nation, ethnicity and language becomes more complex so too do the ways in which people represent them selves. The cultural resources drawn on and the processes used to form identities are examined in this truly international collection. So too are the implications of these developments for how we theorise culture, meaning and identity.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.