Activity during learning and the nonlinear differentiation of experience
Walter Freeman's work emphasises the role of individual activity and intentionality as opposed to the traditional stimulus-reaction view and the machine metaphor. The results of our computer modeling studies suggest the nonlinear dynamics of experience emerging from perception-action cycles. We consider the perception-action cycle as a behavioral continuum of anticipated outcomes of actions. Neuroscientific research shows that each behavioral act is based on the activity of behaviorally specialized neurons distributed across the brain. Active learning during individual development leads to an increasing differentiation of the structure of individual experience through the formation of such groups of behaviorally specialized neurons. We consider the differentiation of individual experience as a nonlinear process which is implemented at different levels, and argue that consciousness and emotion can be described as dynamic characteristics prominent at the most and least differentiated systemic levels, correspondingly.
The polysemy of the translation into Russian of the term "learning" is commented on.
This textbook on Instructional Design for Learning is a must for all education and teaching students and specialists. It provides a comprehensive overview about the theoretical foundations of the various models of Instructional Design and Technology from its very beginning to the most recent approaches. It elaborates Instructional Design (ID) as a science of educational planning. The book expands on this general understanding of ID and presents an up-to-date perspective on the theories and models for the creation of detailed and precise blueprints for effective instruction. It integrates different theoretical aspects and practical approaches, such as conceptual ID models, technology-based ID, and research-based ID. In doing so, this book takes a multi-perspective view on the questions that are central for professional ID: How to analyze the relevant characteristics of the learner and the environment? How to create precise goals and adequate instruments of assessment? How to design classroom and technology-supported learning environments? How to ensure effective teaching and learning by employing formative and summative evaluation? Furthermore, this book presents empirical findings on the processes that enable effective instructional designing. Finally, this book demonstrates two different fields of application by addressing ID for teaching and learning at secondary schools and colleges, as well as for higher education.
The paper presents an analysis of empirical data on relationship of study-related learning experiences with students’ psychological well-being and academic success. The data were obtained using the original Activity-Related Experiences Assessment technique (AREA) and a number of additional measures. The results of four studies are presented. The first one was devoted to the psychometric validation of AREA questionnaire. The results confirmed the constructive validity of the model of activity-related experiences. The second study compared experiences associated with different types of activities (study and leisure). Differences in the structure of correlations of experiences related to different activities confirmed that experiences are activity-related rather than personality-related. The third study presents data on the relationship of study-related experiences with personality traits and academic performance. Only the experience of pleasure revealed a significant association with academic performance. The purpose of the last study was identifying the structure and reliability of AREA on the combined sample by CFA using and checking the connection of study-related experiences with indicators of psychological well-being. Experiences of pleasure and meaning were closely related to each other and negatively related to the experience of void, while the experience of effort was hardly associated the other three scores. Experiences of pleasure and meaning reveal predictable direct (and the experience of void the reverse) association with indicators of well-being.
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is frequently used to index individual differences in decision-making under uncertainty, particularly in atypical (clinical) populations. However, it is rarely analyzed as a learning task, and research on the predictors of performance on the IGT in normative populations is scarce. Here, we focused on tolerance and intolerance for uncertainty as two traits that could potentially influence subjects’ IGT performance. Using mixed modeling analysis of longitudinal experimental data (n=60, 5 blocks) we showed that tolerance for uncertainty predicted the initial level of risk in IGT as manifested in the proportion of “bad decks” chosen; at the same time, intolerance for uncertainty predicted explorative learning in IGT as manifested in the number of deck switches after a loss and its decline over the course of the experiment. The results are discussed in the context of viewing IGT as capturing a set of dynamic decision making processes that rely on learning, risk taking, and exploration.
Embodied cognition theory implies that speech is largely based on the body motor and sensory experience. The question, which is crucial for understanding the origin of language, is how our brain transforms sensory-motor experience and gets access to word semantic representation. We developed an auditory-motor experimental procedure that allowed investigating neural underpinning of word meaning acquisition by way of associative "trial-and-error" learning paradigm that mimics basic aspects of natural language learning. Participants were presented with eight pseudowords; four of them were assigned to specific body part movements during learning blocks – through commencing actions by one of participant’s left or right extremities and receiving a feedback. The other pseudowords did not require actions and were used as controls. Magnetoencephalogram was recorded during passive listening of the pseudowords before and after learning blocks. The cortical sources of the magnetic evoked responses were reconstructed using distributed source modeling. Learning of novel word meaning through word-action association selectively increased neural specificity for these words in the auditory parabelt areas responsible for spectrotemporal analysis, as well as in articulatory areas, both located in the left hemisphere. The extent of neural changes was linked to the degree of language learning, specifically implicating the physiological contribution of the left perisylvian cortex in the speech learning success.
This article presents the up-to-date views on the continuous education and the tendencies to business-education development. The learning during the whole life is the vital necessity of our days. The peculiarity of the continuous education consists in the way of the payment for it. It can be payed by the organization which is interested in the improvement of the professional skills of the employees or by the employees themselves, if they participate in the continuous education program. In the framework of this logic the business -education is some special field of the continuous education. Now days business-education and continuous education are some definite system.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.