ВЛИЯНИЕ “ТРАДИЦИОННОГО” И “ВЕСТЕРНИЗИРОВАННОГО”РАСПРЕДЕЛЕНИЯ ПРОДУКТОВ “АРКТИЧЕСКОЙ КУХНИ” НА СТАТУС ПИТАНИЯ КОРЕННЫХ СЕВЕРЯН
We have evaluated the influence of the “traditional” and “Westernized” types of distribution of products in the “Arctic cuisine” among the Nenets women by examining the serum 25(OH)D concentration. The levels of vitamin D are high in the bodies of older women who have steady access to products of reindeer breeding owing to a specific type of food distribution within the community frequently known as gift economy. When a person is excluded from the traditional system of food distribution, the vitamin D status becomes lower. We argue that the egalitarian (“horizontal”) type of food distribution has functioned as an adaptive mechanism for sustaining nutrition and health among the indigenous people of the North.
The correlations between the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and the blood levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and apolipoprotein E were analyzed in young non-overweight men (n = 40) and women (n = 61) aged 14–23 years having no acute or active chronic diseases. The measured variables were standardized within sex and four local groups. Spearman rank correlation was observed between the concentration of 25(OH)D and TC in women (Rsp = 0.306, p = 0.017), and between the concentrations of 25(OH)D and TG in men (Rsp = –0.372, p = 0.018).
Aim. To assess the genotype frequencies of VDR BsmI (rs1544410) and FokI (rs10735810) in ethnic Russian population and in different groups of the population of Volgo(Kamsky region and Priuraliye.
Materials and methods. Samplings of Russians of the European part of RF (n = 96) and Eastern Finns including Komi(Permyaks (n = 71), Komis (n = 190) and Udmurts (n = 86) were examined. Genotype frequencies were determined using the method of PCR(amplification.
Results. Russians differ for the inhabitants of Moscow (without taking into account ethnic origin) by the distribution of VDR FokI (p = 0,09001), but not BsmI. Eastern Finns in the regions of their historical residence do not differ by VDR FokI and BsmI, but they differ from Russians by BsmI frequencies (p = 0,0856).
Conclusions. The obtained results agree with the assumption about the specificity of VDR allel frequencies in different ethnic groups.
Background. Vitamin D status in groups of northern indigenous people of Russia leading close to traditional (seminomadic reindeer herding), post-traditional (in settlements) or ‘‘modernized’’ (in towns) way of life was analysed. Design. The survey study groups consisted of 178 Nenets and Komi aged 18-60 living in the Arctic (66-678N). Urban Komi, Udmurts and Komi-Permiaks (n-150) living in a non-Arctic area (57-618N) formed a control group. The concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), as a transport form of vitamin D, was assessed by enzyme immunoassay analysis. Results. The group average 25OHD levels in both rural and urban Arctic residents are within the range of values seen in the non-Arctic urban subjects adjusted for season: 39.7-47.7 nmol/l. Abandoning traditional lifestyle associates with lower vitamin D levels in indigenous Arctic people. Mean9standard deviation 25OHD values among Nenets were lower in those living in the administrative centre (a big settlement) with a population of 1,460 (32.2912.90 nmol/l) than in the residents of small settlements (39.6914.08 nmol/l), and in reindeer herders (42.4913.45 nmol/l; pB0.05 in both cases). Komi townspeople had lower 25OHD concentrations (47.7912.00 nmol/l) than Komi reindeer herders (68.7925.20; pB0.01). Conclusion. The transition from seminomadic to post-traditional and ‘‘modernized’’ way of life has led to a decrease in the consumption of traditional foods among the indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Our data support the notion that the traditional northern diet promotes healthy vitamin D levels, while adherence to the ‘‘western’’ type of diet correlates with a lower 25OHD concentration.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.