Конкуренция между падежным и послеложным оформлением ориентира в пространственной зоне эссива в башкирском языке
The paper describes two types of marking of landmark in Bashkir. Bashkir has two ways of expressing location: a landmark with the locative case marker and a landmark with a spatial postposition. The choice among two possibilities depends on some semantic features. The main goal of the paper is to analyze the choice between thеse constructions. The data were collected using a special questionnaire which was developed for the research of spatial relations of the world’s languages [Bowerman, Pederson 1992] and using additional elicitation. As a result, a competition area of these two ways of landmark expression was found. The choice of the type of landmark marking within this area depends on the properties of situation which are described in the article.
The paper addresses the phenomenon of double semantic roles (Endpoint — Place, Goal — Cause) which act as two possible realizations of the same semantic valency and which possess distinct morphosyntactic expressions — accusative and prepositional case, respectively. The paper attempts to determine semantic classes of verbs, which are characterized by this type of semantic structure, as well as identify the shifts in interpretation, which occur in each of the two possible morphosyntatic realizations. The study demonstrates that double semantic roles and the ensuing morphosyntactic variation are typical primarily for caused motion verbs of semantically liminal classes, which combine the semantics of caused motion with other components, such as placement, deformation, creation of an image. There are certain semantic peculiarities typical of each of the realizations. For example, the role of Place calls for nouns with the meaning of spaces or large surfaces, but not containers; the role of Endpoint calls for containers or small surfaces. Intentional actions are better combined with the expression of Endpoint; unintentional predicates favor the expression of Place. On the whole, double roles are considerably more frequent in direct senses than in metaphorical ones, possibly because greater semantic fuzziness typical for the former is replaced by higher semantic specificity in the latter, which limits the syntactic expression as well.
This study introduces a complex networks-based approach to quantifying agglutination. This approach is one of the most powerful ways of model description but it has been rarely used for linguistic needs and there are very few papers where it is applied to morphology.
The Bashkir language belongs to the Turkic languages which are considered to be agglutinative. Although the notion of agglutination was introduced in the 19th century, there is no generally accepted definition of an agglutinative language. Different features were supposed to be necessarily present in an agglutinative language, however, there seems to be no correlation between them. In this study we discuss the data provided by our network and relevant for the notion of agglutination and transcategoriality.
We conducted our study on Bashkir newspaper texts containing 5.8 mln tokens overall. They were annotated with the program “Bashmorph”. We built a network where nodes are affixes while edges represent cooccurrence of an affix pair. The network was built as weighted (based on the frequency of cooccurrences) and undirected. The network consists of 294 nodes and 3446 edges.
It turns out that several standard coefficients characterizing such a network help to quantify and describe certain characteristics of a language. In our case, most parameters correspond to agglutination. Namely, we discuss the meaning of assortativity coefficient, cliques number, maximal k-core, cluster coefficient and network density as well as some other data.
The book undertakes a comprehensive quantitative study of the Bashkir verse system in the 20th century. All levels of poetic text organization from phonics to vocabulary and grammar with special attention to the meter and rhythm are analyzed using modern statistical tools. Quantitative data were obtained on the corous of texts of 103 Bashkir poets with the total volume of 1.77 million words in use. Actually, the analysis is preceded by a detailed review of the science of Turkic poetry starting from the 1950s. It is asserted that the main role in the Bashkir poem of the 20th century is played by the sillabic forms with folklore origin of uzun-kyu and kyska-kyu, the first of which is specific for the Volga-Kipchak poetic tradition. One of the chapters gives a detailed comparison of the Bashkir verse with the Kyrgyz verse. The book concludes with examples of poetic texts in the Bashkir language, generated using artificial neural networks.
The goal of this paper is to analyze and reassess the criteria according to which a class of postpositions is distinguished in the Beserman dialect of Udmurt. This class is traditionally divided into inflected and non-inflected postpositions. Analysis of syntactic and morphosyntactic properties of these two subclasses shows that items traditionally labeled as inflected postpositions form a homogeneous group and show noun-like behavior in most cases, while non-inflected postpositions are heterogeneous. Based on this analysis, we propose to single out a part-of-speech class of relational nouns and show that the rest of the postpositions could be further divided into subclasses with different behavior. The study is based on the data obtained during fieldwork in 2009–2015 in Udmurtia (for Beserman) and on corpus data (for literary Udmurt).
One of the actively developed approaches to the issues of management in the group robotics is application of models of social behavior in groups of robots. In this paper it is offered to use this approach to fulfill the tasks of foraging. The basis of the proposed method is formed by the principles of memorizing the way by visual landmarks and fuzzy control. Results of simulation modeling which confirm efficiency of the approach are presented.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.