Выпускники школ из малых городов России: образовательные и миграционные стратегии
Тhis paper used the results of a research project that was implemented at the Institute for Social Analysis and Forecasting of the Russian Academy of National Economy and State Service under the President of the Russian Federation in 2015. The data of the quantitative survey of school graduates from the 11th grade of secondary schools in small Russian towns, as well as the materials of expert interviews with representatives of the municipal education departments and school management. The main conclusion of the study is that there is a huge migration potential of youth in small towns, which is mainly related to receiving higher education in large cities, unfortunately without the real prospect of returning to the lesser motherland.
The radical changes that occurred in the early 1990s and led to the collapse of the USSR, left outside the Russian Federation about 30 million people – representatives of the people and ethnic groups historically living on the territory of Russia. Deep socio-economic crisis and the growth of separatist sentiment in the newly independent States in the 1990s – early 2000s led to stress migration of the Russian and Russian-speaking population from the former Soviet republics to Russia. Note that about 70% of Russians left in Russia, were of working age. To date, despite a General tendency of reduction in the number of Russian-speaking population in the CIS and Baltic countries, the rate of decline is gradually slowing down.
The article examines labor migration from small Russian towns: prevalence of the phenomenon, the direction and duration of trips, spheres of employment and earnings of migrants, social and economic benefits of migration for households. The representative surveys of households and migrant-workers by a standardized interview were conducted in four selected towns. Authors draw a conclusion about high labor spatial mobility of the population of small towns and existence of positive effects for migrant’s households and the economy of towns themselves. Keywords: small towns, Russian households, labor migration, wages.
This chaper refers to the problem of low productivity and weak competitive stand of plants located in small and particulalry small specialized towns as compared to firms in bigger and more diversified locations. The findingds imply that the urban size and density of economic space, as well as its excessive sectoral specialization significantly reduce the firm competitiveness. Yet, the sectoral structure matters: textile and garmet plants in small towms are most vulnerable. Minimal diversification of economic structure and sufficient scale economy at the plant level allow to reduce the negative effects of the urban size.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.