Internal migration of scientists in Russia and the USA: the case of physicists
When scientists change jobs, they bring to their new workplace the experience, tacit knowledge and social ties they acquired at their previous workplace. Not only is the level of mobility important when discussing knowledge transfer between academic organizations or between regions, but the topology of a mobility network is also of crucial importance. This study presents a comparison of the structure of internal migration networks for Russian and American physicists, more specifically for scholars working in the field of applied physics. The comparison resulted in the set of hypotheses of how the features of the network are connected to the overall scientific productivity of the system.
Russian strategic documents highlight the significance of international cooperation for Russian education and science development. The effectiveness of such cooperation is determined by country's activities and resources that correspond to priorities and possess sufficient potential for achieving purposes. The presented article explores the agreements Russia with other countries and instruments of the international cooperation in the field of Education and Science. The author of the paper examines how bilateral and multilateral international agreements (including documents of international organizations and associations) and instruments contribute to the achievement of strategic objectives such as the improvement of research and education quality, the development of Russian education export. The author uses the database of international agreements formed in July 2013 in the framework of joint project of the International Organizations Research Institute and the National Training Foundation. The results of the analyses show that international agreements in the field of science and education do not fully comply with the country's priorities. In addition, a number of key areas of cooperation need to provide the tools for the development of partnership. It is necessary to create coordination mechanism (national strategy of international cooperation in the field of science and education), which will contribute to the harmonization of goals and actions of the country's international cooperation.
The article examines the status system of the local academic community of St. Petersburg sociologists. The list of most cited authors was obtained from citation analysis of selected Russian sociological journals. The results suggest that the status system is divided in isolated segments with few citation exchanges between different segments. Each part of the sociological community produces its own list of influentials. With a few exceptions there are no authors central for the whole community. Even the embeddedness of various segments in the same local space does not stimulate circulation of attention between different parts of the community.
A bibliometric crisis is defined as a more or less marked decline of basic bibliometric indicators interrupting a preceding period of stable growth or stagnation. The crises of 1930–1931 and 1941–1942 revealed from the previous studies (Kozhevnikov & Petrosova, 1991) were analysed in depth on the basis of the data on the publication of biological serials in USSR from 1917 through 1949 and a set of more detailed data on selected journals covering the period from 1921 through 1958. It is shown that even though the scale of decline of 1930–1931 was comparable to that of 1941–1942, the fine structure of the two crises and their impact on the continuity of the corpus of biological serials were different. The application of the logistic growth model to the analysis of publication of scholarly serials is discussed. It is argued that, for the purposes of our analysis, momentary data are more indicative than cumulative ones.
In this study, we investigated how scientific collaboration represented by co-authorship is related to citation indicators of a scientist. We use co-authorship network to explore the structure of scientific collaboration. For network construction, the profiles of scientists from various countries and scientific fields in Google Scholar were used. We ran the count data regression model for a sample of more than 30 thousand authors with the first citation after 2007 to analyze the correlation between co-authorship network parameters of scientists and their citation characteristics. We identify that there is a positive correlation between citation of scientist and number of his co-authors, between citation and the author’s closeness centrality, and between scholar’s citation and the average citation of his co-authors. Also, we reveal that h-index and i10-index are correlated significantly with the number of co-authors and average citation of co-authors. Based on these results, we can conclude that scientists who maintain more contacts and more active than others have better bibliometric indicators on an average.
In the chapter concerning inbreeding in Russian universities the authors draw data from several sources (studies of higher educational sector in Russia and statistics from the Ministry of education and science and Russian Statistical Agency) to estimate consequences of inbreeding on micro and macro levels.
Proceedings of the International Society for Informetrics and Scientometrics Conference. Indexed in Web of Science and Scopus.
This is a book about the “how to” of one of the most important aspects of diaspora engagement — leveraging countries’ talent abroad to support development at home. The understanding that the diaspora (emigrants and their descendants who retain ties to their countries of origin or ancestry) can be a critical partner for development has emerged fairly recently, due in large part to the experience of two new global powers — China and India — whose rise to prominence owes much to the contributions of their talent abroad. In the amazingly short span of about 15 years, the importance of the diaspora to development has evolved from a novel and somewhat heretical hypothesis to conventional wisdom. Now it is commonly acknowledged that diasporas can be important, but the path of developing policies and programs to help realize the promise of diasporas has been fraught with frustration and disappointment. Diaspora contributions seem to come spontaneously rather than as a result of policy interventions; they are a matter of serendipity. By focusing on policy interventions that effectively promote diaspora contributions, the book fills an important gap in the literature.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.