Теоретико-концептуальный обзор феномена наследования малого семейного бизнеса в России: гендерный аспект.
This work is devoted to the examination and analysis of the family business inheritance phenomenon, its emergence and specific system prevailing in Russia. The focus is made on the review of the most relevant and popular theories and methods used by the authors to study the position of women in the system of small family firms’ inheritance, obstacles women face in the process of business transition to the second generation and the role stereotypical traditional Russian brought-up plays in these issues. The article concentrates on the “gender attributes” – inequality between male and female heirs both in administration of family firm and in the process of decision-making about the future development of the enterprise. The scheme of family business inheritance in Russia is one of the serious problems linked to both entrepreneurship and aspects related to gender inequality.
Visual sources play a growing role in historical studies as well as in teaching as they offer new routes to understanding the past. The ways to construct and define social problems as well as approaches to solving them varied in different periods of history. To do so, it is important to challenge an ideological base of such concepts that often are taken-for-granted, to learn how to consider images as a means to conceive the world, as an important form of social knowledge. What are the differences on men’s and women’s labor in care work? How these distinctions were represented in certain sources and for which purposes? Photographs and episodes from the films, posters and cartoons depicting various images of men and women in the roles of parents, tutors, social care workers, nurses can be used not just as illustrations or representations but also as an important element of a studied context – as important as official documents or personal narratives. The aim of this lecture is to contribute to social work training by providing an overview of experiences, theories and methodologies on the visual, by collecting and building knowledge based on visual material and demonstrating its relevance to the study of human behavior, social networks and welfare policies.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.