Трудоустройство выпускников высших учебных заведений: гендерный аспект
The article analyzes the problem of Russian graduates employability. Young people make up a large part of the working-age population, are characterized by a high level of labor mobility, and also have a sufficient supply of human and social capital, and opportunities for their further accumulation. Young employees represent a special group at the labor market: low level of experience makes young people vulnerable. Using the micro data of Federal State Statistics Service (results of a sample survey of the workforce, 2012—2015), a statistical analysis of employment and unemployment among young people is conducted. The paper investigates current situation of youth in the labor market and gender segregation. The results demonstrate different levels of wages for men and women, as well as distinction in job positions offered by employers. Particular attention is paid to the problem of ineffective interaction between the education system and the labor market. About half of the respondents believe that their place of work is directly related to the direction of their education. Technical and production specialties are in low demand among young people despite the advantages related to the professions.
The paper studies the sources of gender segregation on the within-firm level and its effect on gender wage gap. In compare to numerous of papers devoted to gender segregation, this research is based on unique personnel data from one of Russian industrial firm for the period from 2002 to 2006. It's shown that generation and fastening of segregated employment structures can be explained, firstly, by initial job assignments and, secondly, by gender differences in promotion paths for male and female workers. Estimations of the gender wage gap afford to conclude that it is largely driven by gender segregation between job positions and hierarchical levels rather than by worker's characteristics.
This study provides two models of multiple regressions of graduates of educational institutions of higher education in the Russian Federation. One model is based on the source indicators, and the other - on the principal components. Identified and justified by the benefits of the regression equation, which was built on the components.
This research considers results of the investigation of social ties of graduate’s friendship in their employment and adaptation on the labor market by using data of Russian longitudinal monitoring survey (N = 988, 2012–16 years). Employment based on social ties is seems to be a common practice for students and graduates. More than 40 percent of respondents find their job by using friendship ties. Using social ties in employment are more common for men than for women and frequency of this usage increases with the getting older. Seeking the assistance of social ties more often occurs in urban areas and in the commercial industries. Employment by social ties does not influence on the objective indicators of the position of employed in the labor market. However, results of this study show that employees who had been recruitment by social ties feel themselves less satisfied by the job and career opportunity. Therefore, employment based on social ties negatively affect the subjective indicators of graduate’s adaptation on the labor market.
Nature of the civil service determines labor relations in public authorities. However, the external environment has a significant impact on human resource management in public authorities, as well raising questions that were not previously problematized. Today in Russian public authorities more than 70% of the employees are women, but most of them face difficulties in career progression. The article deals with the specifics of gender segregation in the state civil service of modern Russia. The author aims to identify peculiarities of the status of women holding on civil service positions, as well as identify the causes of gender discrimination. An empirical study based on a series of semi-structured interviews with female civil servants revealed that both vertical gender segregation ("glass ceiling") and horizontal segregation (“glass walls”) are represented in Russian public authorities. An effort was made to identify the reasons of it. According to the research all that’s happening caused not only by normative consolidation of discriminatory measures against women on civil service, but also by "double employment" of women (ie the need to combine professional activities with unpaid domestic work) and self-discrimination of women
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.