Трудоустройство выпускников высших учебных заведений: гендерный аспект
The article analyzes the problem of Russian graduates employability. Young people make up a large part of the working-age population, are characterized by a high level of labor mobility, and also have a sufficient supply of human and social capital, and opportunities for their further accumulation. Young employees represent a special group at the labor market: low level of experience makes young people vulnerable. Using the micro data of Federal State Statistics Service (results of a sample survey of the workforce, 2012—2015), a statistical analysis of employment and unemployment among young people is conducted. The paper investigates current situation of youth in the labor market and gender segregation. The results demonstrate different levels of wages for men and women, as well as distinction in job positions offered by employers. Particular attention is paid to the problem of ineffective interaction between the education system and the labor market. About half of the respondents believe that their place of work is directly related to the direction of their education. Technical and production specialties are in low demand among young people despite the advantages related to the professions.
The paper studies the sources of gender segregation on the within-firm level and its effect on gender wage gap. In compare to numerous of papers devoted to gender segregation, this research is based on unique personnel data from one of Russian industrial firm for the period from 2002 to 2006. It's shown that generation and fastening of segregated employment structures can be explained, firstly, by initial job assignments and, secondly, by gender differences in promotion paths for male and female workers. Estimations of the gender wage gap afford to conclude that it is largely driven by gender segregation between job positions and hierarchical levels rather than by worker's characteristics.
This study provides two models of multiple regressions of graduates of educational institutions of higher education in the Russian Federation. One model is based on the source indicators, and the other - on the principal components. Identified and justified by the benefits of the regression equation, which was built on the components.
Nature of the civil service determines labor relations in public authorities. However, the external environment has a significant impact on human resource management in public authorities, as well raising questions that were not previously problematized. Today in Russian public authorities more than 70% of the employees are women, but most of them face difficulties in career progression. The article deals with the specifics of gender segregation in the state civil service of modern Russia. The author aims to identify peculiarities of the status of women holding on civil service positions, as well as identify the causes of gender discrimination. An empirical study based on a series of semi-structured interviews with female civil servants revealed that both vertical gender segregation ("glass ceiling") and horizontal segregation (“glass walls”) are represented in Russian public authorities. An effort was made to identify the reasons of it. According to the research all that’s happening caused not only by normative consolidation of discriminatory measures against women on civil service, but also by "double employment" of women (ie the need to combine professional activities with unpaid domestic work) and self-discrimination of women
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.