Жизненное призвание: от религиозных и философских идей к психологическому конструкту
The development of the idea of calling is traced from its religious and philosophical roots. The present state of this problem in psychology and further lines of research are considered.
The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the relation between the concepts of loss of meaning (V. Frankl) and alienation (K. Marx, E. Fromm) that are related to similar phenomena. A theory of alienation as an existential neurosis (S. Maddi) is reviewed and seen as a link between these two traditions. Based on the multidimensional view of the ontology of meaning as a psychological and a sociocultural unit, the authors present a view of experiences of meaningfulness and meaning loss as emergent phenomena of the overall system of relationships with the world that are actively pursued by an individual (this view is based on theories of A.N. Leontiev, S. Maddi, J. Nakamura, M. Csikszentmihalyi). In this view, alienation is seen as a category that describes ontological basis of meaninglessness, which is a subjective phenomenon.
This work was performed within the paradigm of mixed method research. In the first part of the paper presented a quantitative analysis of satisfaction with doctors of various aspects of labor activities. The empirical basis is the study are nine ambulatory and one ambulatory outpatient consultative institutions of the city of St. Petersburg, composed this kind of hospital replacing technologies, the outpatient surgery center (Outpatient Surgery Center) (n=113) the second part provides qualitative analysis (semi- structured interview) (n=15) satisfaction with physicians of their employment and working conditions, and also the problem of interaction with colleagues and patients, and problems of formation of professional identity of a young doctor in terms of satisfaction with various aspects of employment. During the quantitative analysis, we have identified that young doctors are the most dissatisfied group, subject to all of the structural social change that occurs at the institutional level (macro), and in the context of a single health care institution. (micro level) the purpose of the study to analyze the satisfaction/ dissatisfaction with doctors of various aspects of labour activities, and to identify how the professional identity of young doctors formed in terms of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with various aspects of labour activity and instability, the crisis of medical profession in Russia.