Образ обмана в русской и японской лингвокультурах
Perceptions of deceit in Russian and Japanese linguocultures are compared on the basis of associations experiments. It has been shown that false representation of true intentions is perceived differently by Russians and the Japanese. The Japanese comprehend deceit as a moral problem to a greater extent than Russians. At the same time, it is characteristic of the Japanese linguoculture to hide one’s true intentions by putting on an imaginary “mask”. The Russian linguoculture demonstrates habituation to deceit; this conclusion is testified by lesser emotionality of reactions collected from the 21st century Russians as compared to the 1990s Russians. At the same time, Russian and Japanese linguocultures share the same belief that the deceit is the opposite of the truth.
Through the analysis if the association reaction of Russian and Japanese native speakers, the intensity of hospitability in the Russian and Japanese linguocultures is examined in the article. There are considered similarities and differences of perceiving the image of guest by the Russians and Japanese. The article demonstrates that the content of the semanteme "Guest" is not identical in the Russian and Japanese languages. In the conditions of active contacts between representatives of different cultures in our supersonic age, the comparative research of linguistic consciousness is an important contribution to the development of mutual understanding between representatives of different cultures, Russian and Japanese in this case. The dynamics of change of the image of guest in the Russian linguoculture is of great interest. It has been experiencing noticeable perturbations throughuot the recent decades. The application of psycholinguistic methods to achieve the mentioned aims is an uncommon and quite new phenomenon for comparing the Russian and Japanese linguocultures. The research has shown that in the Japanese linguoculture it is mainly women who extend hospitality, which reflects the traditional patriarchal practice of the Japanese society. Another conclusion is that the present-day Russians, who do no display any difference regarding the image of guest according to their gender factor, have become less hospitable as compared to the beginning of 1990s.
The purpose of this article is to analyze similarities and differences in values between Russians and other Europeans. In doing so, we plan to compare Russia with other countries in terms of average values indexes; to investigate in detail precisely what subgroups within the country, from perspective of the values they share, make up the Russian population (we assume that this analysis will show similarities and differences between the residents of various countries in greater detail than a comparison of averages); to reveal, using multiple regression analysis, the role of various determinants that influence values; and to determine the correlation between the influence of individuals’ country and their sociodemographic characteristics.
This article studies the issue of democratization of countries within globalization context, it points to the unreasonably high economic and social costs of a rapid transition to democracy as a result of revolutions or of similar large-scale events for the countries unprepared for it. The authors believe that in a number of cases the authoritarian regimes turn out to be more effective in economic and social terms in comparison with emerging democracies especially of the revolutionary type, which are often incapable to insure social order and may have a swing to authoritarianism. Effective authoritarian regimes can also be a suitable form of a transition to efficient and stable democracy. The article investigates various correlations between revolutionary events and possibilities of establishing democracy in a society on the basis of the historical and contemporary examples as well as the recent events in Egypt. The authors demonstrate that one should take into account a country's degree of sociopolitical and cultural preparedness for democratic institutions. In case of favorable background, revolutions can proceed smoothly (‘velvet revolutions’) with efficient outcomes. On the contrary, democracy is established with much difficulty, throwbacks, return to totalitarianism, and with outbreaks of violence and military takeovers in the countries with high illiteracy rate and rural population share, with low female status, with widespread religious fundamental ideology, where a substantial part of the population hardly ever hears of democracy while the liberal intellectuals idealize this form, where the opposing parties are not willing to respect the rules of democratic game when defeated at elections.
The publication «Picturesque Russia. Our Fatherland in its Spatial, Historical, Ethnographic, Economic and Everyday Life Sense», issued in twelwe volumes in 1881–1901, contains a whealth of data about the Slavic peoples, primarily Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians and Poles. Most of the essays on different regions of the Russian Empire were prepared by the men of letters who were often concurrently novelists, journalists, literary critics, and scholars. This article analyses the background of the publication of «Picturesque Russia», its selection of authors, their literary reputations and political preferences as well as national, regional and professional identities.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.