Человеческий капитал российских рабочих: общее состояние и специфические особенности
The article focuses on the questions concerning quality of the human capital of workers in modern Russia, their heterogeneity in that respect, and the role played by human capital in differentiation of Russian labor force in general and workers in particular. The analysis is based on the data from 24th wave of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey - Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE) (October 2014 - February 2015); the sample is 12908 individuals, including 2352 workers. Identification of professional statuses was based on the ISCO-08. The article gives an overall assessment of the human capital of working Russians. It is shown that in respect of their human capital quality, workers are divided in two groups with 3:1 ratio. The smaller group possesses high-quality human capital, including higher level of learning experience and skills of using modern digital technologies. This subgroup of workers can make basic labor pool for innovative transformations in the Russian economy in the conditions of development of clear signals on the importance of professional training, in particular – in case of rigid connection between professional training and wages. Using various specifications of Mincer equation, it is shown that currently the situation is quite different, and the quality of human capital has practically no effect on the wages of workers. As a result, even workers with high-quality human capital mostly do not have professional training that match their employment profile (except for on the job training) and do not seek to improve their skills, considering their professionalism to be already high enough.