Academic Momentum and Undergraduate Student Attrition: Comparative Analysis in US and Russian Universities
Student attrition in postsecondary education is a significant public policy problem. Nations invest substantial resources in college systems, and when students leave, this investment is lost. To understand the factors that influence student attrition in US and Russian public universities, we use the perspective of academic momentum, defined empirically as measures representing student enrollment and study progress. Using a discrete-time event history analysis of samples of eight US and two Russian universities, we provide support for the central claims of the academic momentum theory that undergraduate students who progress through college more rapidly have a lower likelihood of attrition. However, a more detailed analysis reveals variability in the relationship between several academic momentum measures and student attrition, depending on a university’s selectivity and the student’s chosen academic field and gender.
We hope that this study will make one more step in the gradual movement towards opening up opportunities for research on the post-Soviet space built on transparent data and keen academic interest. The demand for a thorough grasp of post-Soviet higher education transformations in each former Soviet Republic seemed natural at the start. Basically, we assumed that national higher education systems reflect changes in societies and the economic and political environment. The institutional landscape of higher education, the structure of the system and the set of ‘rules of the game’ can tell us a great deal about the society in which they are rooted.
Article is devoted to modern content and format of educftion in various disciplines and its relationships with social reality as a condition for the success of modernization and innovation. The result of a content analysis of three textbooks for secondary schools was shown. The analysis was conducted to identify the nature and extent of actual reality in the historical context of the textbooks.
Student withdrawal (attrition) is becoming an actual phenomenon due to demographic changes, modernization of the economy and education, especially for universities located in economically depressed areas. The tradition of research on student withdrawal is still being formed in Russia, so it is important to clarify the main terminology used for the analysis of withdrawal, to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account the specifics of Russian universities, and to specify the prospects for the elaboration of research. A review of the terminology used in international studies to study the withdrawal as well as the history of studying this phenomenon in the USA is presented. The basic concepts of withdrawal, developed in sociology, psychology, organization theory and economics, are considered. They indicate the effectiveness of accounting for a wide range of factors of differing natures in the study of withdrawal: the processes of social and academic integration, the psychological characteristics of students, the organizational characteristics of the university and educational programs. When adapting existing models to Russian higher education, it is important to take into account that compulsory withdrawal caused by academic failure of students predominates in Russian universities, while international models were created to describe voluntary withdrawal from higher education institutions. National research which can serve as the basis for the development of a model of student withdrawal from Russian universities is analyzed.
The authors analyze the data of the representative survey of the Russian citizens carried out by Levada Center in April-May, 2009 (N=2000) and compare them with the findings of the Center previous researches. The Russians nowadays mention money as the main value, deficiency and hypothetical factor for solving all the problems including education and employment (the authors speak about this super value of money as of the poor society mythology). The paper shows extremely little concern of urban population and urban youth for quality education per se and lack of real efforts aimed at increasing this quality. It refers mainly to high school but to a considerable degree to higher educational institutions. The leading motive for acquiring higher education is getting a good (that is, well-paid) job. The core problem of higher school 118 for the majority of population and its younger part is excessively high payment for training and its discrepancy with the quality of education received by students, and correspondingly new inequality that has appeared in recent years in access to higher education, infringement of the rights of less well-to-do or provincial applicants.
This book provides an overview of the major findings of the comparative research project, Changes in Networks, Higher Education and Knowledge Society (CINHEKS). The main aim of this international comparative research project is the analysis of how Higher education institutions are networked within distinct knowledge societies in two key regions of the world: Europe and the United States of America. This research project was carried out in four European countries (Finland, Germany, Portugal and the United Kingdom) and in two different states in the United States of America. In addition, during the course of the research, a team from the Russian Federation joined the CINHEKS study. The analysis is contextually grounded in a comparative policy analysis focused on the main developments and understandings of the ideas surrounding the term knowledge society, in all countries concerned. Empirical elaboration is established via a series of sequential studies, each building, incrementally, on the previous study. These studies include institutional profiles of higher education institutions, institutional case studies, and an international comparative survey that illuminates academics’ social networks. The research findings broaden our understanding of the differences and similarities in how higher education institutions and individual academics are networked within and between societies that understand themselves as knowledge societies. The book introduces a novel analytical synthesis, which asserts contemporary societies have evolved into Networked Knowledge Societies. Methodologically, the book both challenges and raises the bar for previous approaches in comparative higher education, in terms of research design, execution and lays the groundwork for a new generation of international comparative higher education research. (from Springer website)
Stefan Toepler compares the size and scope, the structure, and role and function of philanthropic foundations in Germany and the United States. The author stresses the problem of the lack of data on Germany. In fact, tax information is private, and assets are difficult to quantify. He shows that surprisingly in Germany, foundations’ funding appears to be dominant in areas covered also by the state. In comparing the structure, Toepler demonstrates that operating foundations maintain a visible role in Europe, whereas they are less prominent in the USA. Lastly, by comparing foundations’ function in society, Toepler suggests that the prominence in Germany of complementarity and innovation and in the USA of innovation and social and policy change stems from the different roles of the government in society.
The Sino-Russian relationship in 2015 may well be recalled by posterity as the year of the parade. On the 70th anniversary of the allied victory, Presidents Putin and Xi placed great importance on attending their counterpart’s respective military tributes to World War II victory-day celebrations, in the notable absence of other prominent global leaders. These memorials were important markers of the past, but perhaps more significantly, they served as indications of how the future Sino-Russian relationship is likely to be symbolized. For now, significant differences continue to define the fledgling partnership. This is not to suggest that the relationship does not hold critical importance to shaping the international order. On the contrary, leaders in both Russia and China have overcome long-standing hostilities and structural barriers to forge a larger shared economic, security, and institutional footprint on the edges of the world’s fastest-growing region. Many questions in this delicate tripartite interaction remain unresolved. However, by beginning to acknowledge and understand the respective Chinese and Russian perspectives presented here, we are better prepared to grasp the complicated foundation on which the uneasy triangle is presently built.
This volume provides a critical perspective on the Soviet legacy of superpower competition in the higher education systems of China and Russia. The book examines the tensions among multi-level forces that strive to advance progressive university policies and practices on the one hand, and on the other hand work to restore old-style hyper-centralization and indoctrination. It tracks the de-Sovietization of higher education, which aimed to integrate Chinese and Russian universities into global higher education but resulted in inducing status anxiety in the global hierarchies of knowledge development.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.