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Article

«Кочующая» топонимика: транспортная система как движущая сила названий в Москве

Глазков К. П., Гнилорыбов П. А.

The article describes how the participation of public transport systems constructs the toponymic device of Moscow. The nature of transit transport systems makes possible them to remain in a dynamic relationship with other objects, personalities and events, thus creating an ever-changing placings of memory fixed in the movements of citizens on a practical level. Moscow subway plan plays the role of one of the core image elements, which allows to describe in general terms what is inside the city, where is a particular district. The research hypothesis is that the names of metro stations announce less about the pre-Soviet landscape where they are located, then the names of railway platforms. To test the hypothesis, the authors refer to the history of the development of Muscovites’ navigation practices, as well as estimate the proportion of local historical names in both transport systems. As a result, we have found that, in spite of the insignificant differences in the proportions of historical names, names of railway platforms is much more likely to reflect local history than the Metro. Moscow metro establishes order among disparate parts of the city neglecting sometimes their content and location. That enabled the Metro scheme to replace the city, which is now forced to use the scheme as the only source of self-description. The integration of the newly launched MCC in the current metro transport scheme is indicative, because the old railroad has to be entered in the "usual" image of the city with the regular shape of the Circle Line and the asymmetry in favor of the central part of the city. The "unsightly" shape of the new ring gives in to a canonical image in the process of creating an updated scheme, introducing new distortions and old names at the same time. However, we note that the toponymic device of Moscow is forced to reflect not only local names, as well as directions to the cities and countries that are parts of the immense imperial space.