In the article on the materials of the author's research, the question of the attitude of small business employers to the health of their employees was considered and a conclusion was drawn that the lack of employers' desire to preserve this resource creates prerequisites for the growth of disability of workers in this sector of the economy
The article focuses on the inequality based on disabilities. The analysis includes dynamics of social statuses of people with and without disabilities as well as their comparison with reference to current social policies. The research is based on the RLMS-HSE data. The comparative analysis of social positions of people with and without disabilities has allowed identifying the inequalities in many significant areas of life (education, labor activities, etc.). The analysis also shows that there are people with disabilities who do not feel discriminated; they take responsibility for their own lives, and have a positive view of themselves. The author gives an attempt to compare this social group with other social exclusion groups.
Apart from the public sphere and the norms set by society, the private sphere plays an important role in the lives of the disabled, including the personal experience of disability at a micro level: in their families, everyday routines and romantic relationships. In this chapter, issues of family structure are considered using a narrative analysis of interviews with women who use wheelchairs. Various cultural, social, economic and political determinants effect the formation of certain types of family structure and attitudes towards family life. At the same time, they interrelate with biographical factors that reinforce or weaken the limits of freedom and private life. Using narrative analysis, I demonstrate what role family plays in constructing the identity of a person with a disability, and how family members act as coauthors of individual biographies. This can be seen in those dilemmas of family life associated with the feelings, sexuality and emotional stability at the micro-level of the life experience and identification of women with disabilities.
The purpose of this research is to identify the common elements of successful strategies in overcoming social exclusion. The success criterion is an obtaining of social recognition by people with disabilities due to their social, labor and other activities. For the purpose of the research we performed ten biographical interviews with people with disabilities living an active lifestyle. Results of the research include a description of common elements of successful strategies of social exclusion overcoming for the following activities of respondents: labor and social activities as well as obtaining professional education. In addition to that, we have identified respondents’ objectives and how they plan their social exclusion overcoming activities and the resources they use. The main outcome of this research is that the key for successful social exclusion overcoming by people with disabilities is their willingness to overcome social exclusion. Each successful case of social exclusion overcoming has a strategy behind it: an adequate estimation of available resources, rational choice of tools and ways to use them and tactics for external structures utilization.
There are over thirty million disabled people in Russia and Eastern Europe, yet their voices are rarely heard in scholarly studies of life and well-being in the region. This book brings together new research by internationally recognised local and non-native scholars in a range of countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It covers, historically, the origins of legacies that continue to affect well-being and policy in the region today, discusses disability in culture and society, highlighting the broader conditions that construct disability and in which disabled people must build their identities and well-being, provides in-depth biographical profiles that outline what living with disabilities in the region is like, and examines policy interventions, including international influences, recent reforms and the difficulties of implementing inclusive, community-based care. The book will be of interest both to regional specialists, for whom the problem of declining standards of health and well-being is a crucial concern, and to scholars of disability and social policy internationally
Disability is a part of human condition but it is also a contested field of various definitions and policies. Various approaches to understanding and treatment of disabilities are referred to as models of disability. The two main opposite approaches are social and medical models. In the medical model, disability is considered as a personal problem, caused by a trauma, an illness or some other health condition, thus calling for a need for medical cure and care. In contrast with medical model which claims the necessity to cure the impairments, the social model views disability as a consequence of an unjust social order and insists on the correction of the society, which disables a person. The social views on disability and disability activism mutually influenced each other and contributed to legislative changes. Disability models are embodied and reinforced in welfare policies. The contemporary disability scholarship tries to overcome the dichotomy between medical and social models and takes into account complex issues of body, pain, sexuality and reproduction, intimate experiences and emotions, gender and age.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.