Темпоральность сознания: как возможно единство опыта?
The article is devoted to the problem of the foundation and the character of the unity that determines the very existence of consciousness and forms the structure of conscious experience. As a result of the analysis of several solutions to the problem that were proposed by phenomenology and transcendental philosophy, the author reveals their common basis. It consist in the positing of two fundamental characteristics of consciousness – temporality (consciousness initially presents itself in the form of a stream) and substantiality (there is something persistent that serves as a background of temporal changes). As the study shows, these characteristics become the grounds of Hume’s labyrinth, play the key role in Kant’s apriorism, in Husserlian and contemporary phenomenology and also in post-structuralism.
However, the premise about the fundamental character of temporality leads to a distorted understanding of causality. Since new contents are delivered and ordered by the temporary flow, there is no need to ask about the causes of new contents of consciousness. The primacy of temporality over causality entails the abyss between the mental and the physical world and leads to impossibility to explain the unity of consciousness. The study overcoming the primacy of temporality allows us to explain the existence of temporality and causal relationship as growing from a single root – the way of cognition (not only conscious but also pre-conscious) of the world by the subject.