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## Bäcklund transformation of Painlevé III(D 8) τ function

We study the explicit formula (suggested by Gamayun, Iorgov and Lisovyy) for the Painlevé III(*D* 8) *τ* function in terms of Virasoro conformal blocks with a central charge of 1. The Painlevé equation has two types of bilinear forms, which we call Toda-like and Okamoto-like. We obtain these equations from the representation theory using an embedding of the direct sum of two Virasoro algebras in a certain superalgebra. These two types of bilinear forms correspond to the Neveu–Schwarz sector and the Ramond sector of this algebra. We also obtain the *τ* functions of the algebraic solutions of the Painlevé III(*D* 8) from the special representations of the Virasoro algebra of the highest weight (*n* + 1/4)2.

We consider the AGT correspondence in the context of the conformal field theory M(p, p')\otimes H, where M(p,p') is the minimal model based on the Virasoro algebra labeled by two co-prime integers p,p' and H is the free boson theory based on the Heisenberg algebra. Using Nekrasov's instanton partition functions without modification to compute conformal blocks in M(p, p')\otimes H leads to ill-defined or incorrect expressions.

We propose the procedure to make this expressions are well defined and check these proposal in two cases: 1. 1-point torus, when the operator insertion is the identity, and 2. The 6-point Ising conforma block on the sphere that involves six Ising magnetic operators.

This volume is the proceedings of the conference "Representation Theory, Special Functions and Painlevé Equations" at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University from March 3 to March 6 in 2015

In a previous letter (Alcaraz F C *et al* 2014 *J. Phys. A: Math. Theor.* 47 212003) we have presented numerical evidence that a Hamiltonian expressed in terms of the generators of the periodic Temperley–Lieb algebra has, in the finite-size scaling limit, a spectrum given by representations of the Virasoro algebra with complex highest weights. This Hamiltonian defines a stochastic process with a *Z**N* symmetry. We give here analytical expressions for the partition functions for this system which confirm the numerics. For *N* even, the Hamiltonian has a symmetry which makes the spectrum doubly degenerate leading to two independent stochastic processes. The existence of a complex spectrum leads to an oscillating approach to the stationary state. This phenomenon is illustrated by an example.

We consider the M(2,3) Minimal Liouville gravity, whose states in the gravity sector are represented by irreducible modules of the Virasoro algebra. We present a recursive construction for BRST cohomology classes. This construction is based on using an explicit form of singular vectors in irreducible modules of the Virasoro algebra. We construct an algebra of operators acting on the BRST cohomology space. The operator algebra of physical states is established by use of these operators.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.