Constructivist developmental theory is needed in developmental neuroscience
Neuroscience techniques provide an open window previously unavailable to the origin of thoughts and actions in children. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is booming, and knowledge from human brain mapping is finding its way into education and pediatric practice. Promises of application in developmental cognitive neuroscience rests however on better theory-guided data interpretation. Massive amounts of neuroimaging data from children are being processed, yet published studies often do not frame their work within developmental models—in detriment, we believe, to progress in this field. Here we describe some core challenges in interpreting the data from developmental cognitive neuroscience, and advocate the use of constructivist developmental theories of human cognition with a neuroscience interpretation.
The field of neuroscience has considerably expanded in the last decades. Researchers have used neuroscientific techniques to study a wide range of phenomena in entrepreneurship, business, economics, and marketing fields. The purpose of this chapter is to provide in a single source an outlook on the state-of-the-art techniques in cognitive neuroscience useful to address questions within business and economics realms. Here we particularly focus on two groups of highly insightful and non-invasive techniques: electrophysiologics (EEG, MEG, ECG, EMG, EOG, eye tracking, and electrodermal activity) and behavioral genetics (twins studies, family studies, adopted studies, psychoneuroendocrinology). The techniques can complement more commonly used methodologies (such as fMRI) to provide a holistic picture of the phenomena under study. We further highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each technique and conclude providing examples of potential research questions that can be answered using each instrument.
One merit of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is that apart from a direct school students cognitive appraisal, it enables to collect information on teachers of these students, on their education, work experience and teaching practices. The first difference method was used to determine how teachers characteristics were associated with students achievements and to overcome restrictions of TIMSS correlation design. In addition, effects of teachers characteristics were evaluated by the conventional regressions method. The discovered associations differed across subject areas, and the first difference method results differed from the conventional correlation analysis results. For mathematics the first difference method revealed negative association of reproductive tasks and collaborative learning with achievements, and tasks aimed at comprehension and development of metasubject skills showed positive association. For natural science reproductive tasks showed, on the contrary, positive association, while tasks aimed at comprehension and development of metasubject skills either did not produce any effects, or they were negative. Also, for natural science, unlike mathematics, a teachers experience considerably influenced students achievements.
The concept of thought has always been central to understanding the nature of human thinking in psychological studies. However, the main question of what is thought still remains unanswered. The origins of the issue lie in the definition of the original unit of analysis, i.e. in the definition of what lies at the heart of image, belief, imagination, speech, consciousness, and thinking. Based on available studies, results of which were reflected in recent publications, it was argued that thought should be such an original unit of analysis. This article explores the concept of thought based on cognitive constructs and the neurophysiological correlates of mental activity. The present study is addressed to discuss issues dealing with the nature of thought, its content and structure, and the relationships between indicators of substantial thought and the neurobiological correlates of the process of thinking. Structurally thought is based on needs, emotions and intensions, and as such, thought defines the substantive essence of an image and also represents consciousness. Coherence of thoughts and consciousness, their integrity reflect the connectivity of things from the external world in their entirety. Thus, the ability to generate thoughts and build relationships within the stream of consciousness characterizes the human mind. It is shown that thought as a cognitive substance emerges from desires and experiences, as well as from conscious perception. Taken together, the described psychological and neurophysiological assumptions open up new horizons for research into human mental activity, thinking abilities and consciousness.
The article presents a review of foreign research studies of the possible effects of bilingualism on different aspects of cognitive development of an individual and on the process of the third language acquisition. Such effects are viewed as positive ones by most authors.
The analysis of cognitive competence can predict the level of a child’s develop- ment and, thus, can play an important role in their future academic progress. Although the majority of children show comparable cognitive performance for their age, some children significantly outperform their peers of the same age. Based on the Theory of Constructive Operators (TCO), children’s mental attentional capacity (i.e., the number of items that a child can simultaneously manipulate in their mind) normally increases from about 3 units when they enter school to about 7 units when they finish. In this study, we use parametric visual-spatial measures of mental-attentional capacity to examine whether we can iden- tify cognitively gifted children. In contrast to intelligence tests, which are still a popular measure of giftedness, mental-attentional capacity measures do not depend on context knowledge and have already been used in Canada, South America, Europe, and Australia (Arsalidou & Im-Bolter, 2017), supporting the theoretical prediction of mental-attentional capacity development suggested by the TCO (Pascual-Leone, 1970). We report data on more than 750 children in Moscow schools to evaluate whether Russian children follow similar stage-wise increases in mental-attentional capacity and to estimate the percentage of cog- nitively gifted children identified by these measures. Our data show agreement between the performance of Russian children and the theoretical prediction, which supports the cul- ture-fairness of the tasks. The percentage of gifted children varied from 0.22% to 9.44%, de- pending on a measure. The task that showed results closer to the theoretical expectation also reflected the percentage of cognitively gifted children similar to what was reported based on studies in the United States (0.7% to 9.9%; Lupart, & Pyryt, 1996).
The XVI international interdisciplinary Congress "Neuroscience for medicine and psychology" continues the cycle of scientific events (High Tatras, Slovakia, 2002 and 2003; Karadag, Crimea, Ukraine, 2002 and 2003; Hurghada, Egypt, 2004, Sudak, Crimea, Ukraine, 2004-2013, Sudak, Crimea, Russia, 2014-2019), which are dedicated to the multi-faceted study of the nervous system and the use of this knowledge in medical and psychological practice. The main goal of the forum is to unite the efforts of highly qualified and young specialists of the scientific community who study the nervous system from different points of view to preserve the biological and mental health of people in the modern world. As part of the Congress, the School "Achievements of interdisciplinary neuroscience in the XXI century" is held with lectures and reports by leading scientists. The following issues will be discussed at the sessions of the Congress sections: stress and neurosis, memory, learning, thinking and consciousness, neuronal mechanisms of cognitive processes, Neurotechnology and cognitive