2D:4D and lifetime educational outcomes: Evidence from the Russian RLMS survey
Does in utero exposure to testosterone – as proxied by measured 2D:4D digit ratios – affect lifetime educational outcomes? A growing body of work finds 2D:4D to be associated with aggression, physical fitness, performance in computer science, and type of occupation. While most work tends to show a negative relationship between 2D:4D and outcomes, the link between 2D:4D and male aggression should mean that prenatal T could also have negative effects for some outcomes. Using a large sample of families in Moscow and the Moscow region drawn from the Russian RLMS-HSE longitudinal survey, we observe clear links between measured 2D:4D digit ratios and the levels of education obtained by men. Statistically significant positive associations of 2D:4D (lower prenatal T) with higher levels of education were found, using difference in means analysis as well as generalized ordered logit regressions. These findings were also robust to using different subsamples. Weaker findings were seen for women. Since many of the earlier findings have showed the benefits of higher prenatal T for achievement, the current finding of a negative effect of prenatal T on educational attainment raises interesting issues about the ambiguous effects of prenatal T.
Seventeen papers, originally presented at a conference held in honor of Erik Thorbecke at Cornell University in October 2003, highlight the depth and breadth of Thorbecke's influence in research and policy on poverty, inequality, and development. Papers discuss the growth and roots of Erik Thorbecke's career; the consistency of poverty lines; poverty indices; whether poverty and inequality measures should be combined; an approach to measuring health inequality in India; household investments in education and income inequality at the community level in Indonesia; poverty traps and safety nets; progress in the modeling of rural households' behavior under market failures; labor laws and labor welfare in the context of the Indian experience; macro models and multipliers; multiplier effects and the reduction of poverty; developing an accounting matrix for the euro area; globalization, economic reform, and structural price transmission--social accounting matrix decomposition techniques with an empirical application to Vietnam; institutions, factor endowment, and inequality in Ghana, Kenya, and Senegal; an optimal nonlinear taxation approach combining incentives, inequality, and the allocation of aid when conditionality doesn't work; agricultural research and policy to achieve nutrition goals; and whether dualism is worth revisiting. No index.
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As defined by the OECD and following the international practice, social spending includes all public costs incurred by paying benefits, providing goods and services, as well as tax deductions and discounts, made for social purposes. Among the beneficiaries of these payments and services may be low-income households or certain social groups, such as the retired, disabled, sick and temporarily disabled people, unemployed, and some others. Social spending is generated by such systems as pension plans, healthcare, education (the OECD statistics covers only early childhood education and care), labor market programs, housing, and family policies. This spending is aimed at redistributing resources across households or targets all the citizens and implies compulsory participation. Apart from the definition above, some Russian authors interpret public social spending broader and include funding of the ...
Management in Russia is as difficult to define as a profession as it is in other countries, and the question of what education is appropriate for a future manager is also difficult to define. Business schools in russia need to think more carefully about their curriculums and about what they should be preparing their students for.
The article is concerned with results of content analysis of textbooks for high school in the area of social and human sciences. The author uses the typology of values introduced by S. Schwartz which consists of two value axes — “conservation — openness to change” and “selfassertion — caring about people and nature” — and describes values that underlie each subject area and then compares these values with results of mass surveys of the values of Russians.
The objective of this paper is to estimate the factors of intergeneration educational mobility in Russia and Soviet Union, that is to test the equality in accessing the continuation of education at the next level for children from different social groups (families with various levels of the family capital), estimated for different cohorts. The data source is Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2006-11. There are panel data collected in 1994-2011. The sample is representative for Russia population as a whole. In 2006 there were some questions about respondent parents, that allow us to test if there is the dependence between educational level of respondent and some parameters of his/her parents, including their educational level, Communist Party membership and several other.
We estimated the model of probability to get the education of the given level depending on gender, age, nationality, characteristics of parents and birthplace for Russian people born in 1946-1990. Data about respondents' education are collected in 2006-11, about their parents - in 2006. The method of this model estimation is multinomial regression. The model was estimated for the pooled sample, as well as for three cohorts separately: born in 1946-60, 1961-75, 1976-90. It was found out that the family capital (first of all, the educational level of parents and urbanization level) represent an essential obstacle for educational opportunities of Russian high schools graduates. Regression estimation for the pooled sample demonstrates the significant level of dependence of respondents' education on that of their parents.
How are professors paid? Can the "best and brightest" be attracted to the academic profession? With universities facing international competition, which countries compensate their academics best, and which ones lag behind? Paying the Professoriate examines these questions and provides key insights and recommendations into the current state of the academic profession worldwide. Paying the Professoriate is the first comparative analysis of global faculty salaries, remuneration, and terms of employment. Offering an in-depth international comparison of academic salaries in twenty-eight countries across public, private, research, and non-research universities, chapter authors shed light on the conditions and expectations that shape the modern academic profession. The top researchers on the academic profession worldwide analyze common themes, trends, and the impact of these matters on academic quality and research productivity. In a world where higher education capacity is a key driver of national innovation and prosperity, and nations seek to fast-track their economic growth through expansion of higher education systems, policy makers and administrators increasingly seek answers about what actions they should be taking. Paying the Professoriate provides a much needed resource, illuminating the key issues and offering recommendations.
Twenty-four papers examine the state of early childhood development among sub-Saharan Africa's children. Papers discuss the state of young children in sub-Saharan Africa; positioning early childhood development (ECD) nationally--trends in selected African countries; early childhood care and education in sub-Saharan Africa--what it would take to meet the Millennium Development Goals; brain development and ECD--a case for investment; new threats to ECD--children affected by HIV/AIDS; ECD in Africa--a historical perspective; (mis)understanding ECD in Africa--the force of local and global motives; fathering--the role of men in raising children in Africa--holding up the other half of the sky; ECD policy--a comparative analysis in Ghana, Mauritius, and Namibia; participatory ECD policy planning in Francophone West Africa; responding to the challenge of meeting the needs of children under three in Africa; introducing preprimary classes in Africa--opportunities and challenges; inclusive education--a Mauritian response to the "inherent rights of the child"; parenting challenges for the changing African family; ECD and HIV/AIDS--the newest programming and policy challenge; supporting young children in conflict and postconflict situations--child protection and psychosocial well-being in Angola; strategic communication in early childhood development programs--the case of Uganda; the synergy of nutrition and ECD interventions in sub-Saharan Africa; the impact of ECD programs on maternal employment and older children's school attendance in Kenya; the Madrasa ECD program--making a difference; linking policy discourse to everyday life in Kenya--impacts of neoliberal policies on early education and childrearing; community-based approaches that work in Eastern and Southern Africa; whether early childhood programs can be financially sustainable in Africa; and a tri-part approach to promoting ECD capacity in Africa--ECD seminars, international conferences, and the Early Childhood Development Virtual University. Garcia is Lead Human Development Economist in the World Bank's Human Development Department, Africa Region. Pence is Director of the Early Childhood Development Virtual University and Professor in the School of Child and Youth Care, Faculty of Human and Social Development, at the University of Victoria. Evans is Director Emeritus for the Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development. Index.
The paper observes the main patterns of youth consumption and leisure in contemporary Russia. It relies on the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE, a set of nationally representative household-based surveys which includes data collected from 1994 to 2013. The data shows that by 2010 the level of youth consumption has risen along with the households’ overall income and expenditure. Since financial problems were alleviated, there was a redistribution of time between work and leisure, so youth turned to the active cultural consumption, including non-entertainment services. However, the total increase in products and services consumed went hand in hand with the rise of differentiation in the availability of durables, patterns of consumption and leisure practices.
Тhе article is devoted to the analysis of science, education and business as key institutional agents of civil identity in contemporary society. The civil identity is specified as a subject-object interaction between an individual and a state. Also preconditions for diversification of state power in the field of civic identity forming are determined.