Между случайностью и необходимостью: концепция a priori в эволюционной эпистемологии
The author in his paper «Between chance and necessity: apriori concept in evolutionary epistemology» has proposed a a new principle of classification of Konrad Lorenz’ evolutionary epistemology critique. The Lorenzian argument realistically explains correspondence between our biological apriori and external world by natural selection. Historically this argument was subjected to various forms of critique which the author proposes to classify as accentuating chance or necessity. The author assumed this classification to be quite natural because natural selection itself is frequently thought as a special synthesis of chance and necessity.
Selectionist evolutionary epistemology allows for both realistic (Popper) and anti-realistic (Toulmin) interpretation while catastrophist/saltationist evolutionary epistemology (Kuhn) leads to anti-realism.
The commented famous work by S.J. Gould and R.C. Lewontin is crucial not only to sociobiology critique but to polemics on evolutionary theory in general. Reflection provoked by Gould and Lewontin’s paper in the field of philosophy of biology enables to clarify the relation between the adaptationist program and biological reductionism.
The development of evolutionary thinking is under consideration in the article; heuristic possibilities and possible limits for interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledgeare estimated. It is justified that synthetic, integrative and holistic trends – in contrast to disciplinary differentiation of science in the epoch of Modern time – are predominant in science of the XXI century. Evolutionary thinking which is understood in the most broad sense of its word is based nowadays not only on the theory of biological evolution, but also on the modern theory of complex adaptive systems, network science and nonlinear dynamics. Such a thinking becomes a foundation of a new naturalism which allows us to formulate strategies of evolutionary, naturalistic explanations in epistemology, ethics, politics, aesthetics. Taking as an example evolutionary epistemology, the author analyses its modern trends of development and demonstrates how this field meets interdisciplinary challenges of the modern scientific knowledge.
The complex phenomena of the individual creative activities as well as the historical development of scientific knowledge are under consideration from the point of view of the theory of self-organization (synergetics) in the book. Synergetics is characterized as a new research programme in a wide philosophical, cultural and historical context. The synergetical reinterpretations of some peculiarities of the creative thinking, such as the alternative ways and the scenarios, the latent attitudes and the predeterminations, the self-completing of whole images, are proposed here. The synergetical view of historical development of scientific knowledge is compiled in the book from the notions of the principal nonlinearity and cyclic character of science development,the inertia of the paradigmal consciousness in science, the value of marginal and archaic elements in science. For readers who are interested in evolutionary epistemology and the philosophical problems of synergetics.
Some non-adaptationist concepts of evolutionary biology are classified according to their connection to chance and necessity.
In this paper the impact of adaptationism and genocentrism critique on the development of evolutionary theory in the past half century is examined. This critique was personified in R.C. Lewontin and S.J. Gould attack on sociobiology of E.O. Wilson and R. Dawkins. The conceptual reconstruction of the Modern Synthesis, undertaken by modern supporters of the “Expanded Synthesis” M. Pigliucci and G. Muller, can be reformulated in terms of adaptationism and genocentrism. Thus, adaptationism and genocentrism critique still guides the development of evolutionary theory in the 21st century
Imagination as a problem of evolutionary epistemology is in the focus of attention of the authors of the book. Achievements of the modern cognitive science, life sciences, and neuroscience are involved in the analysis of this traditional epistemological problem, i.e. the problem is under discussion here in the interdisciplinary prospects. The ability of productive imagination is considered in the connection with the newest studies in creativity, the human creative capabilities. The consideration of imagination is placed in the context of the modern discussions of mental imagery, of perceptive thinking, of the role of visualization in mind's games, in the mental processes which take place in different states of consciousness. Imagination is studied in connection with the problems of individual, bodily and spiritual, cultural and social components of the cognitive processes.
Critical conditions for natural selection in multidimensional evolutionary spaces and general requirements following from these conditions and corresponding to the prebiotic evolutionary stage are discussed.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.