Child temperament and mother’s personality as a predictors of maternal relation to child
This article investigates the role of child temperament and mother’s personality in maternal relation to child. Basing on
theoretical ideas and empirical evidences we proposed that parental personality is associated with parenting directly but this
association also interacts with child temperament. Mother’s (N=110) completed EPI to assess extraversion and neuroticism.
Mother’s relation to child was assessed with the Parent-child interaction questionnaire on five subscales: Positive relation to
child, Control, Mildness, Consistency and Confidence. Child temperament was rated by mothers using the Carey
Temperament Questionnaire. According to the results obtained a mother’s neuroticism and extraversion don’t predict the
relation to child. Child temperament plays a more important role: Adaptability and Quality of mood are predictors for most
mother’s relations to child characteristics. Together Threshold of responsiveness and Distractibility predict mother’s Control.
Results of this study are generally consistent with those outlining the influence of infant temperament on parent relation to
The article reveals the genesis of the concept of «individuality». Also provides a description of the essential qualities, given their correlation with the personal qualities of the Big Five. We introduce three methodological principle of personality description, an example of identity based on the basic qualities.
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of individual temperament traits on selective auditory attention. The subjects performed auditory selective attention task during 3 experimental sessions. Task performance indexes of each session were found to correlate with the dimensions of temperament, subjects' academic achievement and their level of musical education. The results were interpreted from the viewpoint of Kahneman’s Capacity Model of Attention. It was concluded that temperament affects activation and arousal which are viewed as a physiological basis of attention. It was also summarized that during the experiment automation of auditory selection, depending on individual differences, occurred.
The research examines the structure of interrelations of brain event-related potentials to behavioral measures and temperament dimensions during an attentional task. Three temperament questionnaires were used: Eysenck Personality Inventory, Strelau Temperament Inventory and Rusalov Structure of Temperament Questionnaire. Event-related potentials were recorded under the active auditory oddball paradigm. The stimuli (85 dB, 1050 and 1000 Hz sinusoidal tones as targets and non-targets correspondingly) were easily discriminated by all participants. A complex framework of interrelations between temperament and personality dimensions, behavioral measures and event-related potentials was found. Particularly, P3 amplitude was negatively related to the number of response omissions. Emotionality was positively correlated to P2 and N1-P2 complex amplitude. Extraversion together with Mobility of Nervous Processes was negatively related to the amplitude of N1-P2 complex, and together with Social Ergonicity it was negatively related to N2 latency. The results demonstrate that Extraversion tends to be associated with both intensity and temporal aspects of temperament and hint at the importance of using multidimensional approach in temperament studies.
Using data from Italy, Spain, and Germany (N = 1,569), this study investigated the role of basic values (universalism and security) and basic traits (openness and agreeableness) in predicting perceptions of the consequences of immigration. In line with Schwartz’s (1992) theory, we conceptualized security as having two distinct components, one concerned with safety of the self (personal security) and the other with harmony and stability of larger groups and of society (group security). Structural equation modeling revealed that universalism values underlie perceptions that immigration has positive consequences and group security values underlie perceptions that it has negative consequences. Personal security makes no unique, additional contribution. Multi-group analyses revealed that these associations are invariant across the three countries except for a stronger link between universalism and perceptions of the consequences of immigration in Spain. To examine whether values mediate relations of traits to perceptions of immigration, we used the Five Factor Model. Findings supported a full mediation model. Individuals’ traits of openness and agreeableness explained significant variance in security and universalism values. Basic values, in turn, explained perceptions of the consequences of immigration.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.