В каком обществе мы живем? Анализ факторов, определяющих массовый выбор, на примере восприятия социальной структуры
The article examines issues that define mass choice. The analyses is based on ISSP-2009 results (“Social inequality”, 40 countries, N =55238). Two groups of factors are considered: economic ones and subjective assessments that respondents gave to their social position and situation in the country. Based on the answers the author attempted to predict what structure diagram respondents would choose to describe the society they live in. The literature review shows that expert assessments of incomes inequality do not provide reliable basis for conclusions: less then 5% of predictions were correct in Ukraine, about 13% in Russia. The subjective evaluations provide much more accurate base for prognostication. Using discriminant analysis we predicted correctly about 73% of choices made by respondents. For some countries the proportion of correctly predict answers is even better: 91% for Ukraine, 74% for Russia.
In article possible approaches to clustering of large city schools of the Russian Federation by results of their educational activity are studied. The extent to which a school has entered a particular cluster is determined by a number of objective conditions in which schools operate. Significant indicators of conditions affecting the EGE-results in schools were identified. It is shown that the studied indexes of the working conditions of schools are not sufficient for the correct clustering of schools according to the aggregated EGE-indicators.
In this work a problem is studied of classification of respondents into classes accepting and not participation in a charity actions. An optimal (in Bayes sense) decisive discriminant rule of division of objects on two classes is constructed for the case when all indicators of observable objects are measured in a nominal scale, and there are signs of dependence between them . Using ROC-analysis methods, comparison of the developed rule with a rule implemented in the software package SPSS (Fisher’s discriminant rule), «naive» Bayesian classifier, a rule based on support vector machines (SVM) method and implemented in SPSS package binary logistic regression classifier is made. Results of the ROC-analysis have shown that the proposed rule has higher quality than all other mentioned rules of classification of respondents.
Different methods of feature selection are used to improve the performance of remote sensing images classification. In this work two methods of feature selection are examined. The first one is based on the discriminant analysis, and the second one rests on building the regression model. Histogram and textural features are considered as characteristics of an image. The experiments on the remote sensing dataset UC Merced Land Use show the effectiveness of these methods. As the result, the largest fraction of correctly classified images accounts for the 95%. Dimension of the initial feature space consisting of 18 features has been reduced to 3 features.
The article gives an overview of the main approaches to verification of the internal rating methods of analysis of the creditworthiness. The article gives practical advice on the application of these techniques by an example of real internal rating technique.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.