Мотивация предпринимательской активности: роль институциональной среды
This article presents the results of a research which purpose was to investigate the link between institutional features and the motivation of entrepreneurial activity on the country level. We evaluate the level of total early-stage entrepreneurial activity, and, more specifically, the share of necessity-driven entrepreneurship. Taking into account Scott’s institutional theory, we established the main factors of the institutional environment — the regulatory, normative, and cognitive pillars. The empirical analysis was conducted using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Survey for the period between 2009 and 2014; information for every country that participated in the project in that period was used in the article. Using data from various sources, such as Global Competitiveness Report, World Bank, Doing Business, Economic Freedom of the world, Hofstede’s Cultural Indicators, we identified proxy-variables for every institutional dimension of Scott’s theory. The results of our econometric analysis indicate that the regulatory, normative, and cognitive factors influence not only the level of total early-stage entrepreneurial activity, but also the share of necessity-driven entrepreneurs
Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research is a compilation of the conference proceedings and the top papers presented each year at the Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC). BCERC is widely considered the premier research conference on entrepreneurship and the work truly exemplifies new frontiers in the discipline of entrepreneurship. Full text papers are peer reviewed; summaries, poster sessions and interactive papers are not.
The case addresses the problems of managing strategic change in a small business company Kislorod Plus (Niznhny Novgorod, Russia) – a local trader of welding equipment. The story starts with firing the company’s executive, who took a number of dramatic mistakes, and thus failed implementing corporate strategy, ruined the economy of the firm, and created a significant threat of bankruptcy. Notwithstanding all the problems of the heavy crisis, the company and the situation still have a number of opportunities that are to be recognized and pursued in order to save the business and lead the company to prosperity.
The volume deals with the current frontier research in entrepreneurship theory in Europe on contextual and processual specifics of entrepreneurial practice
Drawing on the neo-institutional approach in organizational theory and global strategy, we advance a theory on the impact that differences in cultural egalitarianism have on multinational firms’ decision of where to engage in foreign direct investment (FDI) across the globe. Egalitarianism expresses a society’s cultural orientation with respect to intolerance for abuses of market and political power; it shapes the ways in which firms holding power interact with different stakeholders. After presenting a series of case illustrations, we find a strong negative impact of egalitarianism distance on FDI flows in a broad sample of nations and for different entry modes. Our results are robust to a broad set of competing accounts, including effects from other cultural dimensions, major features of the legal and regulatory regimes, other features of the institutional system, and economic development. These results hold while controlling for origin and host country factors through a fixed-effects specification as well as by using instruments for egalitarianism. We also find that other cultural influences are important as well. Differences in cultural harmony are actually positively associated with increased FDI flows, likely because multinational firms seek countries with lower societal support for entrepreneurship. FDI further tends to flow from high embeddedness to low embeddedness countries, and we link this in part to international regulatory arbitrage on environmental protection regimes.
The book contains papers by the leading contemporary researchers of entrepreneurship who belong to the group of awardees of the Global awared in entrepreneurship research as well as outlines of their research activities. First concise collection of the mainstream entrepreneurship research ideas of the end of the 20th - beginning of the 21th centuries.
The paper analyzes the classical and neoclassical assumptions concerning the effect of the natural and the institutional environments on the comparative welfare of various countries. The distinction is considered between the preindustrial and industrial societies as to their natural and institutional conditions.
Relevance of statement and studying of a problem of entrepreneurial culture development of future managers is connected with features of development of the country, with orientation of the higher education to humanistic values and meanings. In our opinion the entrepreneurial culture can be considered in a context of cultures. The article presents a view on entrepreneurial culture in a context of "culture of usefulness and dignity". The entrepreneurial culture in the modern conditions, arisen as culture of usefulness, seeks to develop in itself lines of the personality significant culture, focused on dignity, "public understanding", the humanistic principle of "solidarity". Solving problems of modernization of the higher education, relying on competence-based approach, development of entrepreneurial culture in professional education of modern managers gets a special sense. Authors defined the basic principles and problems of the educational process directed on formation of entrepreneurial culture. Experience of faculty of management of NRU HSE in Nizhny Novgorod is presented in article, the program of entrepreneurial culture development of the youth is described. The program is realized consistently at three levels, each is caused by the purposes, methods, forms, age features of participants: The first level - "Formation of an image of the modern businessman". The second level – "An entrepreneurial mentality. First experience". The third level - "I am a businessman! ".
One of the most popular statements in the systemic transition literature since the second half of the 1990th is that different experiences of the CEE and Baltic states, on the one hand, and the most of the CIS countries, on the other hand, are embedded in different social norms and values, encouraging efforts in the new EU member states and preventing it in some of CIS countries.
The book contains teaching materials and notes on the study course “Entrepreneurship”.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.