Modern business conditions require a revision of the traditional concept of marketing and existing marketing tools. The materials of the international project "Contemporary marketing practices" are considered in the article. This project is the methodological basis for monitoring of marketing activities in 17 countries. For Russia it is very important that research uses comprehensive approach, assuming, on the one hand, the combination of alternative marketing concepts, on the other hand - the adaptation to different industry and geographic markets. The methodology of the project "Contemporary marketing practices" offers the tools for typologization of companies in terms of marketing practices used, as well as the key indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of marketing. This article describes the methodology, development stagesand also the results of factor analysis in order to show the directions of adaptation of the methodology to the Russian conditions.
Online reviews have become one of the most effective tools to influence consumer behavior and level of sales. In this paper we consider determinants of online reviews and ratings. The study is based on more than three thousand online reviews from Russian consumers of durable goods (electronics and home appliances). We found a significant difference in the level of influence between new and old reviews. Moreover, the higher the total numbers of reviews available, the higher the number of reviews taken into account by a particular consumer. Another finding is that both average online rank and price of a product are positively correlated with variance of reviews about that product. Based on differences in the effectiveness of information transmission about quality, products were divided into two categories: experience goods and search goods. We provide an econometric model that helps explain not only the dynamic but also the direction of consumers’ ranking of a product depending on the number and content of existing reviews.
The role of e-commerce in the economic growth is constantly increasing; its development though depends on some limiting and driving factors. This paper investigates limiting and driving factors that influence e-commerce market development in Russia from the consumer perspective. To identify limiting and driving factors of the Russian e-commerce market development from the consumer perspective in Russia, a quantitative survey is applied. A new scale that includes 44 indicators to describe online shopping barriers and drivers has been developed. The total sample of 884 respondents is composed of consumers who are experienced in buying goods or services via internet. Exploratory factor analysis and K-means clustering analysis are applied to analyze the obtained data. The findings reveal the structure of driving and limiting factors, highlighting the core role of the trustworthiness and transparency of e-commerce market players, security risks and privacy concerns, reputation of the online store, consumer trust and online shopping infrastructure. Cluster analysis identified three main clusters: (1) consumers who appreciate benefits of making internet purchases, (2) consumers buying from abroad, and (3) cautious consumers with low level of trust. The findings from this study make several contributions to a growing body of literature on ecommerce. Firstly, the drivers and barriers of the e-commerce market development from the consumer and Russian market perspectives are revealed. Secondly, this is the study to compensate the lack of empirical research describing the barriers and drivers of the e-commerce market in Russia. Thirdly, this research extends our knowledge of the Russian e-commerce market and may serve as a base for future studies in this field.
The purpose of the article is to assess entrepreneurial spirit and entrepreneurial activity of students and to identify students’ needs in specific educational programs concerning the development of entrepreneurship projects in the innovative sphere on the example of National Research University Higher School of Economics in Nizhny Novgorod (HSE NN).
The empirical study was conducted in three stages during the years 2014-2015, including desk study, interview with experts and survey of students. Authors adapted the GEM and GUESSS questionnaires according to the aim to study students’ needs in entrepreneurship education in the innovative sphere. Questions added concern students’ needs in developing entrepreneurial competencies, skills, educational formats and topics of the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere.
Findings show the entrepreneurial spirit and activity of the HSE NN students, their needs in special educational programs of the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere. Students are ready to start an entrepreneurial project only after acquiring some experience as an employee. Findings indicate low entrepreneurial activity among HSE NN students. One of the main reasons for that is the shortage of the entrepreneurial competencies and skills among students. Low involvement of students in the current educational activities in the entrepreneurship is caused by low quality and effectiveness of them. It is offered, that curriculums for entrepreneurship and extracurricular activities should focus on entrepreneurship practices through the development of students’ projects. Findings reveal the most needed topics for studying the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere, such as team formation, business-planning, market strategy of the launching of the new product, depending on the specialization of students.
Research limitations appear in the focus on students of HSE NN. But the methodology could be used for the surveys of other Universities. It is worth mentioning the sample limitation. Due to the economic profile of the HSE NN, the research sample involves more students with economic specialty and less amount of students with mathematical and social specializations. The sample does not include technical specializations.
Russian and foreign universities could use the results in developing and improving educational activities for students in the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere.
Originality of the paper concerns the adaptation of the questionnaire to the survey in the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere. It allows revealing students’ needs in the educational activities in innovation entrepreneurship.
The case is devoted to the problem of correct climate-friendly branding and is based on a real business situation. The Russian company RUSAL creates a brand of “climate-friendly” aluminium to win over its Chinese competitors which took away the title of the world’s largest primary aluminium producer. As the main criterion for the climate-friendly, RUSAL proposes to consider the low-carbon, i.e. a low level of carbon dioxide emissions. RUSAL also states that the new aluminium brand is a confirmation of the company’s environmental friendliness and a reflection of its strategy aimed at strengthening the principles of sustainable development in production. At the same time, the activities of RUSAL in the production of aluminium cause damage to the ecosystems of Lake Baikal and Siberian rivers and pollutes the air with hazardous substances, which is the cause of the spread of various diseases among the population of the cities where RUSAL’s aluminium smelters are located.
The case is recommended for discussion in study groups on bachelor and master’s programmes, as well as additional educational programmes within the disciplines “Corporate Social Responsibility” and “Sustainable Development”. The case will help students: 1) to understand the problems and challenges that companies face in climate-friendly branding, 2) to realize the difference between the effectively fighting climate change and the reduction of greenhouse gases; 3) to recognize the diversity of the company’s objectives to reduce the negative impact on the environment and the need for their reasonable ranking
The paper presents the results of the research of the market reaction to announcements about information technologies investments, made by Russian companies. Despite of the importance of such investments for the competitiveness of the modern enterprise, their impact at the companies’ value needs in the further study and does not seem evident. Though Russian information technologies’ market reveals the dramatic growth, the statistic data highlights that the companies’ management tends to be rather economic in the sphere of information technologies’ investments. The reaction of the Russian market to the announcements about the companies’ information technologies investments is analyzed on the base of the event study analysis. The study is made for the period of 2009-2012. The results define the factors, enhancing the companies’ value growth due to information technologies investments.
The biopharmaceutical industry has always been a highly concentrated sector of the economy. This industry became a matter of great interest in Russia when import-substituting programmes grew in relevance. The implementation of the Pharma-2020 strategy, along with the stable indicators of the economic growth of the industry, facilitated the creation of cluster initiatives — both innovative and innovative local ones — in certain regions of the Russian Federation. A necessary condition for the creation of cluster initiatives is the existence of a high industrial concentration in a rather limited area. The article proposes a methodology that can be used to check whether cluster initiatives match geographic clusters; it also demonstrates how this methodology can be applied to the cluster initiatives created in Russia between 2008 and 2018 in order to verify how they match the geographical clusters established on the basis of spatial indices of industrial concentration. We have established that out of the twenty-four biopharmaceutical clusters considered, eight clusters were created in areas where the relevant industry is not geographically concentrated. We have found regions in which the geographic concentration of the biopharmaceutical industry is rather high, although regional governments did not launch cluster initiatives of the related industries. We have analyzed the structure of the biopharmaceutical cluster initiatives and revealed that: the number of participants is insufficient; the share of industrial plants is low; the industry is not sufficiently specialized; small and average plants are involved only at an average level.
Customer orientation in the emerging markets and its specifics represent a separate field within the marketing research. The purpose of this paper is to explore the real or declared nature of customer orientation of companies operating in the Russian market as an example of the emerging economy. The paper introduces the customer oriented business process original framework, developed on the basis of existing research analyses. The objective of this research is met by conducting empirical test of existence or absence of customer oriented business processes within companies. To reveal the existence or absence of customer oriented business processes, 61 indepth interviews with representatives of the companies operating in the Russian market have been conducted. The interviews have been analyzed applying a content analysis, which allows systematic study of the semantic data received from in-depth interviews. A mixed-method approach is applied to investigate in detail the specifics of customer orientation of Russian companies. The findings indicate the declared nature of customer orientation in the Russian market as the customer orientation values are often just declared by companies, but still there is a lack of customer oriented business processes needed for its real implementation. Research limitations include the limitations of the qualitative method approach. The sample of 61 companies cannot be representative for the whole general population of Russian companies. The paper provides researchers and practitioners with the insights into customer orientation specifics existing in the Russian market. This paper sheds the light on the specifics characteristics of customer orientation in the Russian market named declared customer orientation. This notion is helpful for foreign companies entering the Russian market. The previous research has shown that the customer orientation concept is not well-studied in the context of the emerging Russian market. This analysis proves that the declared but not the real nature of customer orientation exists in the Russian market.
This article presents the results of a research which purpose was to investigate the link between institutional features and the motivation of entrepreneurial activity on the country level. We evaluate the level of total early-stage entrepreneurial activity, and, more specifically, the share of necessity-driven entrepreneurship. Taking into account Scott’s institutional theory, we established the main factors of the institutional environment — the regulatory, normative, and cognitive pillars. The empirical analysis was conducted using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Survey for the period between 2009 and 2014; information for every country that participated in the project in that period was used in the article. Using data from various sources, such as Global Competitiveness Report, World Bank, Doing Business, Economic Freedom of the world, Hofstede’s Cultural Indicators, we identified proxy-variables for every institutional dimension of Scott’s theory. The results of our econometric analysis indicate that the regulatory, normative, and cognitive factors influence not only the level of total early-stage entrepreneurial activity, but also the share of necessity-driven entrepreneurs