Modern business conditions require a revision of the traditional concept of marketing and existing marketing tools. The materials of the international project "Contemporary marketing practices" are considered in the article. This project is the methodological basis for monitoring of marketing activities in 17 countries. For Russia it is very important that research uses comprehensive approach, assuming, on the one hand, the combination of alternative marketing concepts, on the other hand - the adaptation to different industry and geographic markets. The methodology of the project "Contemporary marketing practices" offers the tools for typologization of companies in terms of marketing practices used, as well as the key indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of marketing. This article describes the methodology, development stagesand also the results of factor analysis in order to show the directions of adaptation of the methodology to the Russian conditions.
Online reviews have become one of the most effective tools to influence consumer behavior and level of sales. In this paper we consider determinants of online reviews and ratings. The study is based on more than three thousand online reviews from Russian consumers of durable goods (electronics and home appliances). We found a significant difference in the level of influence between new and old reviews. Moreover, the higher the total numbers of reviews available, the higher the number of reviews taken into account by a particular consumer. Another finding is that both average online rank and price of a product are positively correlated with variance of reviews about that product. Based on differences in the effectiveness of information transmission about quality, products were divided into two categories: experience goods and search goods. We provide an econometric model that helps explain not only the dynamic but also the direction of consumers’ ranking of a product depending on the number and content of existing reviews.
The role of e-commerce in the economic growth is constantly increasing; its development though depends on some limiting and driving factors. This paper investigates limiting and driving factors that influence e-commerce market development in Russia from the consumer perspective. To identify limiting and driving factors of the Russian e-commerce market development from the consumer perspective in Russia, a quantitative survey is applied. A new scale that includes 44 indicators to describe online shopping barriers and drivers has been developed. The total sample of 884 respondents is composed of consumers who are experienced in buying goods or services via internet. Exploratory factor analysis and K-means clustering analysis are applied to analyze the obtained data. The findings reveal the structure of driving and limiting factors, highlighting the core role of the trustworthiness and transparency of e-commerce market players, security risks and privacy concerns, reputation of the online store, consumer trust and online shopping infrastructure. Cluster analysis identified three main clusters: (1) consumers who appreciate benefits of making internet purchases, (2) consumers buying from abroad, and (3) cautious consumers with low level of trust. The findings from this study make several contributions to a growing body of literature on ecommerce. Firstly, the drivers and barriers of the e-commerce market development from the consumer and Russian market perspectives are revealed. Secondly, this is the study to compensate the lack of empirical research describing the barriers and drivers of the e-commerce market in Russia. Thirdly, this research extends our knowledge of the Russian e-commerce market and may serve as a base for future studies in this field.
The article presents the main approaches to the definition and study of brand alliances, and the modern state of the respected field of studies is characterized. The terms “brand alliance” and “co-branding” are compared, the scope and place of the brand alliance concept in marketing theory are described. It has been demonstrated that the basis for the study of this phenomenon is a joint presentation of two or more brands to the consumer, but depending on the context of research the formation of brand alliances can be analyzed as a branding tool of marketing alliance creation or a brand strategy. These results contribute to the scientific discussion by addressing gaps in the given field of knowledge, which are related to its fragmented nature and the need to establish a universal terminological apparatus. On the basis of the conducted analysis the topical issues in the field of brand alliances study have been allocated. The analysis of brand alliances is associated with its development and further consolidation of its place as an integral part of marketing science.
Th e paper deals with the analysis of the existing approaches to brand orientation operationalization. Th is research aims to develop and test on empirical data the scale for refl ecting the level of brand orientation development in Russian companies. For this purpose, a mixed empirical study was conducted, consisting of the sequential use of qualitative and quantitative methods. Th e qualitative research was conducted on the basis of in-depth interviews with fi ft een representatives of Russian companies, and the quantitative research as an online survey – on the sample of 213 Russian companies. As a result, the scale of four groups of indicators measuring brand orientation in four directions was formed: the strategic importance of the brand for a company, the communication activity of a company, the analysis of the behavior of a company’s competitors and the use of internal branding in a company. A distinguishing feature of the resulting brand orientation scale lies in refl ecting and measuring both components of brand orientation, specifi cally, strategy and tactics. Th e proposed approach makes it possible to assess the level of the company’s processes development aimed at the formation of brand orientation, both from the point of view of building activities around the brand values and using the brand as a strategic asset, and the specifi c methods, tools and implementation methods. Th e obtained fi ndings can be used by Russian companies in the development of a business strategy and in studies on measuring the level of brand orientation, identifying the brand management features in terms of philosophical and behavioral approaches to brand orientation and their harmonious integration within an organization.
The purpose of the article is to assess entrepreneurial spirit and entrepreneurial activity of students and to identify students’ needs in specific educational programs concerning the development of entrepreneurship projects in the innovative sphere on the example of National Research University Higher School of Economics in Nizhny Novgorod (HSE NN).
The empirical study was conducted in three stages during the years 2014-2015, including desk study, interview with experts and survey of students. Authors adapted the GEM and GUESSS questionnaires according to the aim to study students’ needs in entrepreneurship education in the innovative sphere. Questions added concern students’ needs in developing entrepreneurial competencies, skills, educational formats and topics of the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere.
Findings show the entrepreneurial spirit and activity of the HSE NN students, their needs in special educational programs of the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere. Students are ready to start an entrepreneurial project only after acquiring some experience as an employee. Findings indicate low entrepreneurial activity among HSE NN students. One of the main reasons for that is the shortage of the entrepreneurial competencies and skills among students. Low involvement of students in the current educational activities in the entrepreneurship is caused by low quality and effectiveness of them. It is offered, that curriculums for entrepreneurship and extracurricular activities should focus on entrepreneurship practices through the development of students’ projects. Findings reveal the most needed topics for studying the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere, such as team formation, business-planning, market strategy of the launching of the new product, depending on the specialization of students.
Research limitations appear in the focus on students of HSE NN. But the methodology could be used for the surveys of other Universities. It is worth mentioning the sample limitation. Due to the economic profile of the HSE NN, the research sample involves more students with economic specialty and less amount of students with mathematical and social specializations. The sample does not include technical specializations.
Russian and foreign universities could use the results in developing and improving educational activities for students in the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere.
Originality of the paper concerns the adaptation of the questionnaire to the survey in the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere. It allows revealing students’ needs in the educational activities in innovation entrepreneurship.
The case is devoted to the problem of correct climate-friendly branding and is based on a real business situation. The Russian company RUSAL creates a brand of “climate-friendly” aluminium to win over its Chinese competitors which took away the title of the world’s largest primary aluminium producer. As the main criterion for the climate-friendly, RUSAL proposes to consider the low-carbon, i.e. a low level of carbon dioxide emissions. RUSAL also states that the new aluminium brand is a confirmation of the company’s environmental friendliness and a reflection of its strategy aimed at strengthening the principles of sustainable development in production. At the same time, the activities of RUSAL in the production of aluminium cause damage to the ecosystems of Lake Baikal and Siberian rivers and pollutes the air with hazardous substances, which is the cause of the spread of various diseases among the population of the cities where RUSAL’s aluminium smelters are located.
The case is recommended for discussion in study groups on bachelor and master’s programmes, as well as additional educational programmes within the disciplines “Corporate Social Responsibility” and “Sustainable Development”. The case will help students: 1) to understand the problems and challenges that companies face in climate-friendly branding, 2) to realize the difference between the effectively fighting climate change and the reduction of greenhouse gases; 3) to recognize the diversity of the company’s objectives to reduce the negative impact on the environment and the need for their reasonable ranking
Th is paper, based on the data of sample observation of population incomes and participation in social programs for the period from 2014 to 2018 prepared by the Federal State Statistics Service, evaluates the diff erences in the incomes of employees and entrepreneurs, the latter fall into ownaccount workers and employers. In this study the methods of ordinary least squares and quantile regression are employed. Th e results show that in Russia entrepreneurs’ median and average earnings are higher than employees’ ones. Th e highest positive diff erences are in the incomes of employers who earn more than own-account workers and employees respectively. Also, entrepreneurs earn more than employees during the period of economic growth as well as recession. It indicates that the positive income diff erence between entrepreneurs and employees is kept during economic slowdowns. Th is fi nding distinguishes Russia from the countries with high income per capita and a larger contribution of small and medium-sized businesses to the gross domestic product, such as the USA, Great Britain, Germany, Finland, where entrepreneurs oft en earn less than employees. Th us, the monetary reward might be a primary reason for persons to opt for entrepreneurship in Russia than in high-income economies.
The article presents an analysis of the main research directions in the field of gamification in management. The purpose of the study is to identify main approaches to the definition of gamification, generalize and systematize the current knowledge of construct. The analysis represented in the article has been based on publications presented in the leading research journal on information management, marketing and general business area from 2011 to 2019. The main approaches to the definition of gamification were highlighted, an analysis of their application for development was presented. A comprehensive analysis showed that in modern science there are two main approaches to definition: gamification as a tool and gamification as a process. The study of gamification in management is a relatively young field of science, which has both its advantages and certain disadvantages. Most of the research focuses on empirical testing of the connection between gamification and motivational mechanisms, with the goal of creating a more effective design of gamified systems that improve the user experience. Such studies lead to obvious issues in the development of theoretical knowledge about the concept of gamification, as well as the way to operationalize it. The interdisciplinary nature of the phenomenon requires further study and clarification of existing approaches to conceptualization in the field of management and social sciences, as well as determining the ethical boundaries of the use of gamified systems. The findings are of practical importance for researchers both in gamification area and those interested in consumers’ or employees’ engagement studies.
(GVC) concept and group extant research in the field according to different aspects of the GVC analysis in order to identify promising areas for further research. Institutional dimension of the GVC analysis is emphasized in terms of the specifics of emerging-market multinational enterprises (EMNEs). Based on a detailed review and systematization of the extant research in the field two main areas for further research are identified. Firstly, the influence of institutional distance between different countries taking part in GVCs on GVC configuration parameters (governance type, geographical distribution of GVC operations and GVC upgrading type) and secondly, the role of various contracting methods (outsourcing, offshoring, franchizing, etc., as opposed to traditional foreign direct investment) in the configuration and improvement of GVC operations. Thus institutional and geographical aspects of the GVC analysis as well as upgrading in GVCs in the context of EMNEs are identified to be the most promising areas for future research in the field. Keywords: global value chains (GVCs), global commodity chains (GCCs), emerging-market multinational enterprises (EMNEs), institutional dimension of the GVC analysis.
The paper aims to explore the characteristics of the dividend policy of Russian companies with state participation and identify its determining factors. Dividend decisions made by the company are largely dependent on the activities of the board of directors, the central corporate govern- ance body, and the liaison between shareholders and managers. The topic is relevant due to the predominant share of companies with state participation in Russia’s GDP. This explains the need to study the trends in their behavior in the field of the dividend policy. In addition, during the period from 2015 to 2017, a number of legislative changes were introduced, including an in- crease in the rate of dividend payments. Despite this legislative requirement, the established rate is not always observed in practice. This suggests that the board of directors may influence the dividends paid by the company even if there is a statute which regulates dividend payments. The study comprises an empirical analysis of the relationship between structural characteristics of the boards of directors, financial and economic indicators of the companies with state participation, and the dividend payout ratio. The paper analyzes activities of 120 Russian joint-stock companies over a period of three years, from 2015 to 2017. The main hypotheses of the study concerning the relationship between the characteristics of the company boards of directors with government participation and the dividend payout ratio were partially confirmed. A statistically significant relationship was found between some characteristics (the size of the board of directors, the share of women and the share of independent directors who sit on the board) and the dividend payout ratio. At the same time, it is difficult to draw unambiguous conclusions regarding a causal rela- tionship, that is, to talk about the effect of the characteristics of the boards of directors on the pro- pensity of state-owned companies to pay dividends. Also, the dividend policy of the companies with state participation is a source of budget revenue, which further emphasizes the relevance of the proposed study. It should be noted that the results obtained cannot be extended to the entire set of companies on the Russian market.
Innovations are becoming critical for the sustainable development of the Russian Federation. Most of the research on innovation policy is concerned with the national level, but neglects some of the essential regional-scale factors. The main goal of the study was to explore institutional factors that stimulate innovation processes at the regional level. The paper substantiates the hypothesis that in modern Russian conditions it is possible to implement regional innovation policies that differ in a set of unique institutional conditions and allow regions to compete for resources (investments, innovations, human capital, and others). Within the framework of this study, the main characteristics, stages of evolution and SWOT-analysis of the innovation system of one of the leading regions in innovation development in the RF, the Republic of Tatarstan, are highlighted. A special attention is paid to the analysis of changes in the regional innovation policy in 2005–2019 and identification of risks associated with its implementation. Th e main conclusion of the study is the idea that subnational institutions, which use indirect (soft) tools to stimulate innovation activity, to a signifi cant extent, form the innovative environment and become decisive in interregional competition. In our opinion, during the analyzed period such institutional innovations were essential for the Republic of Tatarstan. Among the key factors for the successful development of innovative processes in the Russian regions is the important role played by coordinated government action at all levels and eff ectiveness of dialogue between government and business.