Modern business conditions require a revision of the traditional concept of marketing and existing marketing tools. The materials of the international project "Contemporary marketing practices" are considered in the article. This project is the methodological basis for monitoring of marketing activities in 17 countries. For Russia it is very important that research uses comprehensive approach, assuming, on the one hand, the combination of alternative marketing concepts, on the other hand - the adaptation to different industry and geographic markets. The methodology of the project "Contemporary marketing practices" offers the tools for typologization of companies in terms of marketing practices used, as well as the key indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of marketing. This article describes the methodology, development stagesand also the results of factor analysis in order to show the directions of adaptation of the methodology to the Russian conditions.
Online reviews have become one of the most effective tools to influence consumer behavior and level of sales. In this paper we consider determinants of online reviews and ratings. The study is based on more than three thousand online reviews from Russian consumers of durable goods (electronics and home appliances). We found a significant difference in the level of influence between new and old reviews. Moreover, the higher the total numbers of reviews available, the higher the number of reviews taken into account by a particular consumer. Another finding is that both average online rank and price of a product are positively correlated with variance of reviews about that product. Based on differences in the effectiveness of information transmission about quality, products were divided into two categories: experience goods and search goods. We provide an econometric model that helps explain not only the dynamic but also the direction of consumers’ ranking of a product depending on the number and content of existing reviews.
The role of e-commerce in the economic growth is constantly increasing; its development though depends on some limiting and driving factors. This paper investigates limiting and driving factors that influence e-commerce market development in Russia from the consumer perspective. To identify limiting and driving factors of the Russian e-commerce market development from the consumer perspective in Russia, a quantitative survey is applied. A new scale that includes 44 indicators to describe online shopping barriers and drivers has been developed. The total sample of 884 respondents is composed of consumers who are experienced in buying goods or services via internet. Exploratory factor analysis and K-means clustering analysis are applied to analyze the obtained data. The findings reveal the structure of driving and limiting factors, highlighting the core role of the trustworthiness and transparency of e-commerce market players, security risks and privacy concerns, reputation of the online store, consumer trust and online shopping infrastructure. Cluster analysis identified three main clusters: (1) consumers who appreciate benefits of making internet purchases, (2) consumers buying from abroad, and (3) cautious consumers with low level of trust. The findings from this study make several contributions to a growing body of literature on ecommerce. Firstly, the drivers and barriers of the e-commerce market development from the consumer and Russian market perspectives are revealed. Secondly, this is the study to compensate the lack of empirical research describing the barriers and drivers of the e-commerce market in Russia. Thirdly, this research extends our knowledge of the Russian e-commerce market and may serve as a base for future studies in this field.
Th e paper deals with the analysis of the existing approaches to brand orientation operationalization. Th is research aims to develop and test on empirical data the scale for refl ecting the level of brand orientation development in Russian companies. For this purpose, a mixed empirical study was conducted, consisting of the sequential use of qualitative and quantitative methods. Th e qualitative research was conducted on the basis of in-depth interviews with fi ft een representatives of Russian companies, and the quantitative research as an online survey – on the sample of 213 Russian companies. As a result, the scale of four groups of indicators measuring brand orientation in four directions was formed: the strategic importance of the brand for a company, the communication activity of a company, the analysis of the behavior of a company’s competitors and the use of internal branding in a company. A distinguishing feature of the resulting brand orientation scale lies in refl ecting and measuring both components of brand orientation, specifi cally, strategy and tactics. Th e proposed approach makes it possible to assess the level of the company’s processes development aimed at the formation of brand orientation, both from the point of view of building activities around the brand values and using the brand as a strategic asset, and the specifi c methods, tools and implementation methods. Th e obtained fi ndings can be used by Russian companies in the development of a business strategy and in studies on measuring the level of brand orientation, identifying the brand management features in terms of philosophical and behavioral approaches to brand orientation and their harmonious integration within an organization.
The purpose of the article is to assess entrepreneurial spirit and entrepreneurial activity of students and to identify students’ needs in specific educational programs concerning the development of entrepreneurship projects in the innovative sphere on the example of National Research University Higher School of Economics in Nizhny Novgorod (HSE NN).
The empirical study was conducted in three stages during the years 2014-2015, including desk study, interview with experts and survey of students. Authors adapted the GEM and GUESSS questionnaires according to the aim to study students’ needs in entrepreneurship education in the innovative sphere. Questions added concern students’ needs in developing entrepreneurial competencies, skills, educational formats and topics of the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere.
Findings show the entrepreneurial spirit and activity of the HSE NN students, their needs in special educational programs of the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere. Students are ready to start an entrepreneurial project only after acquiring some experience as an employee. Findings indicate low entrepreneurial activity among HSE NN students. One of the main reasons for that is the shortage of the entrepreneurial competencies and skills among students. Low involvement of students in the current educational activities in the entrepreneurship is caused by low quality and effectiveness of them. It is offered, that curriculums for entrepreneurship and extracurricular activities should focus on entrepreneurship practices through the development of students’ projects. Findings reveal the most needed topics for studying the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere, such as team formation, business-planning, market strategy of the launching of the new product, depending on the specialization of students.
Research limitations appear in the focus on students of HSE NN. But the methodology could be used for the surveys of other Universities. It is worth mentioning the sample limitation. Due to the economic profile of the HSE NN, the research sample involves more students with economic specialty and less amount of students with mathematical and social specializations. The sample does not include technical specializations.
Russian and foreign universities could use the results in developing and improving educational activities for students in the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere.
Originality of the paper concerns the adaptation of the questionnaire to the survey in the entrepreneurship in the innovation sphere. It allows revealing students’ needs in the educational activities in innovation entrepreneurship.
The case is devoted to the problem of correct climate-friendly branding and is based on a real business situation. The Russian company RUSAL creates a brand of “climate-friendly” aluminium to win over its Chinese competitors which took away the title of the world’s largest primary aluminium producer. As the main criterion for the climate-friendly, RUSAL proposes to consider the low-carbon, i.e. a low level of carbon dioxide emissions. RUSAL also states that the new aluminium brand is a confirmation of the company’s environmental friendliness and a reflection of its strategy aimed at strengthening the principles of sustainable development in production. At the same time, the activities of RUSAL in the production of aluminium cause damage to the ecosystems of Lake Baikal and Siberian rivers and pollutes the air with hazardous substances, which is the cause of the spread of various diseases among the population of the cities where RUSAL’s aluminium smelters are located.
The case is recommended for discussion in study groups on bachelor and master’s programmes, as well as additional educational programmes within the disciplines “Corporate Social Responsibility” and “Sustainable Development”. The case will help students: 1) to understand the problems and challenges that companies face in climate-friendly branding, 2) to realize the difference between the effectively fighting climate change and the reduction of greenhouse gases; 3) to recognize the diversity of the company’s objectives to reduce the negative impact on the environment and the need for their reasonable ranking
Th is paper, based on the data of sample observation of population incomes and participation in social programs for the period from 2014 to 2018 prepared by the Federal State Statistics Service, evaluates the diff erences in the incomes of employees and entrepreneurs, the latter fall into ownaccount workers and employers. In this study the methods of ordinary least squares and quantile regression are employed. Th e results show that in Russia entrepreneurs’ median and average earnings are higher than employees’ ones. Th e highest positive diff erences are in the incomes of employers who earn more than own-account workers and employees respectively. Also, entrepreneurs earn more than employees during the period of economic growth as well as recession. It indicates that the positive income diff erence between entrepreneurs and employees is kept during economic slowdowns. Th is fi nding distinguishes Russia from the countries with high income per capita and a larger contribution of small and medium-sized businesses to the gross domestic product, such as the USA, Great Britain, Germany, Finland, where entrepreneurs oft en earn less than employees. Th us, the monetary reward might be a primary reason for persons to opt for entrepreneurship in Russia than in high-income economies.
Innovations are becoming critical for the sustainable development of the Russian Federation. Most of the research on innovation policy is concerned with the national level, but neglects some of the essential regional-scale factors. The main goal of the study was to explore institutional factors that stimulate innovation processes at the regional level. The paper substantiates the hypothesis that in modern Russian conditions it is possible to implement regional innovation policies that differ in a set of unique institutional conditions and allow regions to compete for resources (investments, innovations, human capital, and others). Within the framework of this study, the main characteristics, stages of evolution and SWOT-analysis of the innovation system of one of the leading regions in innovation development in the RF, the Republic of Tatarstan, are highlighted. A special attention is paid to the analysis of changes in the regional innovation policy in 2005–2019 and identification of risks associated with its implementation. Th e main conclusion of the study is the idea that subnational institutions, which use indirect (soft) tools to stimulate innovation activity, to a signifi cant extent, form the innovative environment and become decisive in interregional competition. In our opinion, during the analyzed period such institutional innovations were essential for the Republic of Tatarstan. Among the key factors for the successful development of innovative processes in the Russian regions is the important role played by coordinated government action at all levels and eff ectiveness of dialogue between government and business.
The paper presents the results of the research of the market reaction to announcements about information technologies investments, made by Russian companies. Despite of the importance of such investments for the competitiveness of the modern enterprise, their impact at the companies’ value needs in the further study and does not seem evident. Though Russian information technologies’ market reveals the dramatic growth, the statistic data highlights that the companies’ management tends to be rather economic in the sphere of information technologies’ investments. The reaction of the Russian market to the announcements about the companies’ information technologies investments is analyzed on the base of the event study analysis. The study is made for the period of 2009-2012. The results define the factors, enhancing the companies’ value growth due to information technologies investments.
The main goal of the research was to identify the currently forming research problems in the area of halal tourism and hospitality, which were reflected in the publications of international and Russian authors. The research design was based on the application of methods and tools of bibliometric analysis (Bibliometrix R-package and the “statistical reports”), word cloud formation method. As a result, sources with the largest number of publications were identified, leading research centres with the largest number of publications and citations of publications on this topic were determined, the evolutionary stages of priority research areas were pointed out. The limitations of the study are a limited number of publications on halal tourism is represented in the Russian problem field. In this regard, it is not possible to ensure the comparability of samples from Russian and foreign publications. Besides, due to the difference in the organization of international and Russian citation bases, there is a necessity to use different bibliometric analysis tools, which is also a limitation of the study. The research results provide an opportunity to compare the stages of development of halal tourism research in Russian and international academic literature to determine the place of Russian research within the global context.
The biopharmaceutical industry has always been a highly concentrated sector of the economy. This industry became a matter of great interest in Russia when import-substituting programmes grew in relevance. The implementation of the Pharma-2020 strategy, along with the stable indicators of the economic growth of the industry, facilitated the creation of cluster initiatives — both innovative and innovative local ones — in certain regions of the Russian Federation. A necessary condition for the creation of cluster initiatives is the existence of a high industrial concentration in a rather limited area. The article proposes a methodology that can be used to check whether cluster initiatives match geographic clusters; it also demonstrates how this methodology can be applied to the cluster initiatives created in Russia between 2008 and 2018 in order to verify how they match the geographical clusters established on the basis of spatial indices of industrial concentration. We have established that out of the twenty-four biopharmaceutical clusters considered, eight clusters were created in areas where the relevant industry is not geographically concentrated. We have found regions in which the geographic concentration of the biopharmaceutical industry is rather high, although regional governments did not launch cluster initiatives of the related industries. We have analyzed the structure of the biopharmaceutical cluster initiatives and revealed that: the number of participants is insufficient; the share of industrial plants is low; the industry is not sufficiently specialized; small and average plants are involved only at an average level.