Coping Behaviour and Difficult Life Situations of University Students in Russia
This article presents an investigation of coping behaviour with regard to difficult life situations among Orthodox students in Russia. It analyses the results of an exploration of the influence of religiosity on different coping strategies. The sample investigated includes Orthodox students from two universities in the Russian Federation. In the study, we used the questionnaire “Me and my attitude towards religion”, Heim’s technique for revealing individual coping strategies, Smirnov’s psychometric technique encompassed in the “Questionnaire of religious activity”, and Shcherbatykh’s “Test for revealing the level of individual religiosity”. The study suggests that different coping strategies can be applied in difficult life situations.
Sociopsychological analysis in the study showed that there is a relationship between the level of religious belief and strategies used to overcome difficult life situations. The presence of a positive connection between protective and capturing behaviour showed that highly religious people are characterised by active non-adaptability. Such people overcome difficult situations with energy and activity, combined with an expression of humility in the face of the situation.
This article scrutinizes personality variable of successful coping with stress termed hardiness (inventors of the term are Susan Cobeisa and Salvatore Maddi, the author of the Russian equivalent zhiznestoikost' is D.A. Leontiev). Thе work offers results of the comparative examination of hardiness in students of an Orthodox university and of secular universities.
The paper is a quantitative study of the interaction between religiosity and attitudes towards sexual minorities that can be regarded as a manifestation of social conservatism. The aim of the research is to identify significant differences in attitudes towards homosexuals among believers and nonbelievers, those who attend religious services regularly and those who “believe without belonging”. Country specifics of the interaction are in the focus of analysis, as well as the differences among Orthodox Christians from different European countries. Statistical analysis results suggest that in Western, Northern and Southern Europe differences among religious groups in attitudes towards homosexuals are stable and significant while Russia and Eastern Europe demonstrate only weak differences among confessions and no effect of the degree of religiosity on one’s approval of sexual minorities.
The article discusses the concept of "religious person", the substructure of personality religious rights (religious consciousness and religious behavior and religious relations), analyzes the reasons for the classification types of believers, these foreign and domestic authors.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.