Алгоритм оценки качества данных экспертного опроса
The article explores how “homeland” is conceptualized in modernist theories of nationalism, nationalist discourses, and theories of ethno-symbolism. The author surveys the most important contemporary conceptualizations of territoriality in visions of nationhood and argues that of all “grand” theories of nationalism, the ethno-symbolic conception offers the most detailed analysis of the concept of “homeland.” To substantiate this argument, the author suggests a particular case study of ethno-symbolism focused on representations of homeland and native land among the Meskheti Turks of Central Russia. The study revealed that the informants put forward multiple representations of homeland. Most respondents considered both Meskhetia and Turkey as their ultimate “homeland.” Correspondingly, most informants wish to settle and build homes exactly on these historical lands of their ancestors (or believed ancestors) and not in wealthy and politically stable countries, which are not perceived as homelands. These responses confirm the ethno-symbolic theory of “homeland,” which focuses on the symbolic rather than instrumental value of “native land” in the framework of national and ethnic self-descriptions.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.