Проблема информационной перегрузки в культуре: история вопроса и обзор современных направлений исследования
The article deals with the problem of information overload in culture, its effects on the different aspects of culture, and cultural dynamics. There is no single definition of this concept, but you can construct it from the contemporary research. The article puts forward the idea that information overload exists in the culture of all times, and human adaptation to it is associated with the emergence and spread of various forms of cultural existence. However, information overload is actively problematized in science only at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The article analyzes the study background of the information overload among philosophers and sociologists of technology, researchers of culture of the first half of the 20th century. This study background is associated with the problems of technological reproduction of cultural objects, the development of mass culture, mass media, etc. The article presents an overview of the main directions of the study of information overload from inception to the modern stage. Firstly, it is a cybernetic approach to the study of communication, which is presented today in the range of quantitative research of the various social networks, as well as an analysis of "big data". Secondly, it is the psychological and neurophysiological studies of information overload, which have undergone significant changes over the half-century, opening new data on the work of the human brain. This is also the direction of "health literacy", studied the impact of information overload on the health of patients. Thirdly, it is the social and art studies of information overload, which gradually develop in the 21st century, taking over from the applied research in the field of management and marketing, developed in the late 20th century. At the end the ideas about what research in the field of information overload may be interesting in the future are presented.